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The comparison of antibacterial properties of herbal products and standard antibiotics

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The comparison of antibacterial properties of herbal products and standard antibiotics Introduction: This is As biology coursework, studying the area of microbiology the main investigation contains the comparison of antibacterial properties of herbal products and standard antibiotics. Aim: The aim is to investigate the effect of herbal products against standard antibiotics on bacteria growth. To examine the extent to which the herbal products (tea tree oil and peppermint oil) and the standard antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin), reduce bacteria growth of E.coli and M.luteus. This will be discovered by measuring the growth of bacteria on the agar plates and comparing the results. Background information: The proposed aim surrounds the study of bacteria growth and various other products, which can have an affect on the growth rate; it is therefore necessary to look deeper into the topic criteria to get a wider understanding and to help design an appropriate hypothesis. From self-knowledge antibiotics are chemicals produced by microorganisms, which are designed to inhibit and destroy specific pathogens when used at low temperatures. Antibiotics release chemicals, which inhibit bacterial growth and work on a specific action site. The first founded antibiotic was penicillin discovered accidentally by Alexander Fleming in 1928 from a mold culture. It can be established that herbal oils are mainly used as antiseptics to fight against bacteria growth. Peppermint is used in toothpaste, not just for the mint flavour but also due to the fact it kills off bacteria in the mouth. From various websites and textbooks, it is said that all antibiotics have two names, a brand or trade name and generic name, based on the antibiotic's chemical structure or class. Although there are over 100 different antibiotics the majority come from only a few types of drugs. These types are called aminoglycoside, cephalosporin, macrolide, penicillin, quinolone, sulphonamide and tetracycline. (www.emedicinehealth.com) There are two categories of antibiotics, which are determined primarily by their strength or rate of effectiveness, but also by their means of action against bacteria. ...read more.

Middle

3. With the empty sterile bottles, empty the contents of the tea tree oil into one and the peppermint oil in the other. 4. Then place 12 paper filter discs in each bottle and allow to soak for a few minutes. 5. Place herbal soaked filter discs on the baking tray. 6. Place in the oven and leave for 15minutes. 7. Flame the neck of the E.coli bacteria bottle, keeping the lid in your hand at all times. 8. Using the pipette place 0.2mls of E.coli bacteria into 24 (half) of the agar plates. 9. Flame the glass spreader holding it at a 45? angle. 10. Spread the bacteria evenly across the agar plates. 11. Using the forceps place the penicillin disc's into the centre of 6 agar plates. 12. Place the forceps in ethanol and flame them. 13. Using the forceps again place the streptomycin disc's into the centre of 6 agar plates. 14. Take the tray out of the oven and allow to cool. 15. Using the forceps place the 6 tea tree discs in the centre of 6 of the agar plates. 16. Place the forceps back into the ethanol and flame them off. 17. Then using the forceps place the 6 peppermint oil discs into the last 6 agar plates. 18. Use 2 strips of Sellotape to secure the lid to each agar plate- do not seal the whole way round, as most dangerous bacteria are anaerobic. 19. Label each plate with the bacteria name, the herbal oil or the antibiotic name, the date and your initials. 20. Repeat the above steps (1-19) but use M.Luteus bacteria instead. 21. Clean up all your mess. 22. Once finished, place all the agar plates in the incubator at 25?. 23. Leave for 24 hours. 24. Measure the inhibition zone of each agar plate, by measuring 3 points and adding them together and dividing the answer by 3. ...read more.

Conclusion

r1 r2 r3 Average r Area (mm2) r1 r2 r3 Average r Area (mm2) r1 r2 r3 Average r Area (mm2) 1 7.0 8.0 7.0 7.3 41.9 17.0 18.0 17.0 17.3 235.1 22.0 24.0 26.0 24.0 452.4 10.0 10.0 11.0 10.3 83.3 2 8.0 9.0 6.0 7.6 45.4 14.0 15.0 15.0 14.6 167.4 17.0 18.0 15.0 16.6 216.4 15.0 17.0 14.0 15.3 184.9 3 6.0 6.0 7.0 6.3 31.2 24.0 21.0 26.0 23.6 437.4 19.0 21.0 21.0 20.3 323.7 10.0 11.0 9.0 10.0 78.5 4 9.0 6.0 7.0 7.3 41.9 19.0 18.0 21.0 19.3 292.6 20.0 23.0 24.0 22.3 390.6 12.0 11.0 12.0 11.6 106.7 5 8.0 7.0 8.0 7.6 45.4 14.0 20.0 17.0 17.0 227.9 19.0 24.0 20.0 21.0 346.4 14.0 12.0 10.0 12.0 113.1 6 10.0 6.0 6.0 7.3 41.9 18.0 22.0 19.0 19.6 301.7 21.0 18.0 17.0 18.6 271.7 9.0 10.0 12.0 10.3 83.3 Average area of inhibition (mm2) 41.3 277.0 333.5 108.3 Radius (r) of inhibition zone (mm) M.luteus Penicillin Streptomycin Tea Tree oil Peppermint oil r1 r2 r3 Average r Area (mm2) r1 r2 r3 Average r Area (mm2) r1 r2 r3 Average r Area (mm2) r1 r2 r3 Average r Area (mm2) 1 9.0 11.0 10.0 10.0 79.0 23.0 22.0 19.0 24.3 452.4 14.0 15.0 14.0 14.3 160.6 11.0 10.0 9.0 10.0 78.5 2 10.0 10.0 12.0 10.6 88.2 22.0 21.0 24.0 22.3 390.6 15.0 13.0 12.0 13.3 138.9 13.0 14.0 10.0 12.3 118.8 3 13.0 14.0 10.0 12.3 118.8 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 415.5 17.0 15.0 16.0 16.0 201.1 17.0 15.0 18.0 16.6 216.4 4 12.0 13.0 9.0 11.3 100.2 21.0 20.0 21.0 20.6 333.3 16.0 12.0 13.0 13.6 145.3 15.0 10.0 12.0 12.3 118.8 5 7.0 11.0 10.0 9.3 67.9 22.0 23.0 24.0 23.0 415.5 13.0 14.0 14.0 13.6 145.3 12.0 10.0 9.0 10.3 83.3 6 12.0 11.0 12.0 11.6 106.7 23.0 19.0 20.0 20.6 333.3 15.0 16.0 13.0 14.6 167.4 9.0 11.0 16.0 12.0 113.1 Average area of inhibition (mm2) 93.5 390.1 159.8 114. ...read more.

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5 star(s)

Response to the question

An exemplary essay piece. The response to the question covered all available boundaries and beyond what I would expect from an A level candidate. Response to the question is very clearly and concisely set out.

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Response to the question

An exemplary essay piece. The response to the question covered all available boundaries and beyond what I would expect from an A level candidate. Response to the question is very clearly and concisely set out.

Level of analysis

Hypothesis, introduction, scientific background and reasons for the experiment are all set out in a good depth of analysis and a clear and concise manner. However, the scientific reasoning behind the use of herbal products could be explored with a deeper scientific basis. The PH could also affect how the antibiotics work and this is not controlled as a factor which could affect the experiment, neither is humidity of the surroundings. The use of a pilot test shows considerations beyond the level I would expect for an A level candidate. The fact that they had to completely amend their hypothesis shows that they should have looked into the scientific background a bit clearer to make an accurate prediction from the beginning. Scientific analysis of the results and what they were is very in depth. Excellent overall response and analysis to the question.

Quality of writing

Grammar, spelling and punctuation, all clear, correct and to a very high standard.


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Reviewed by skatealexia 07/04/2012

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