• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The costs of cigarette smoking

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The costs of cigarette smoking Smoking claims and average of 2950 lives every day in Europe alone, nearly all Europeans know about the risks involved in tobacco use, and yet 100 million people still smoke.1 The cigarettes, cigars and pipes seams to be uniquely addictive. This is because the nicotine in tobacco leaves causes a strong psychologically dependent on the taste and feel of tobacco. We are going to be examining the biological costs of tobacco use, focusing on the level of the cell, where the damage begins. When Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World, he found Native Americans cultivating and smoking tobacco for what they believed to be medicinal properties. Columbus and other explorers carried tobacco to Europe and eventually the rest of the world. Today, 500 years later, the plant is still widely used. As a natural defence, tobacco leaves and stems produce various compounds that discourage insects and other predators. Among them is a bitter-tasting nitrogen-containing compound, the alkaloid called nicotine. Smokers become physically hooked on this compound, which is toxic to the body but has profound and in some ways pleasant psychoactive properties. Researchers have found that after regular smoking for a year, a person has only one chance in five of quitting successfully on a given attempt.2 It takes most people three or four serious efforts to stop, and some are never able to. ...read more.

Middle

When CO combines with haemoglobin, the pigment delivers less oxygen to the body's tissues, including the brain, and the person's ability to think clearly is reduced. Immune Cell Changes: Researchers studying the white blood cells called macrophages that patrol and protect the airways and lungs have found an increase in the size and numbers of lysosomes within the cells and a decrease in protein synthesis. The cells are apparently so busy ingesting foreign particles and the debris of damaged cells that they can't grow and function properly. Immune cell disruption helps explain why smokers catch colds, flu, and pneumonia more easily than non-smokers, as well as experience increased cancer rates. Immediate and Delayed Consequences: Some cellular changes from smoking produce immediate effects. After just a few days or weeks of smoking, most people have shortness of breath and decreased ability to perform aerobic exercise. Tobacco users have lowered resistance to colds and flu, and slower healing of broken bones and other wounds. Female smokers tend to have more miscarriages and babies of lower birth weight. Even in their teens and twenties, tobacco users tend to develop periodontal (gum) disease four times as often as nonusers. And many recent studies show that tobacco use interferes with complex tasks involving memory and reasoning, and addicts are more likely to have automobile or industrial accidents. Some of the more life-threatening health consequences of smoking include lung disease, heart disease, thyroid disease, and cancers of the mouth, throat, lungs, bladder, and other sites. ...read more.

Conclusion

They cite plummeting tobacco consumption in countries like Canada that have imposed such stiff taxes, and note that budget-conscious young people are among the first to quit when tobacco prices skyrocket. My sources for my quotes How one in five have given up smoking--ROBERT MATTHEWS- New Scientist vol 144 issue 1948 - 22 October 94, page 12 Eastern Europe heads for smoking catastrophe--TARA PATEL- New Scientist vol 136 issue 1845 - 31 October 92, page 6 Science: Urine tests confirm fears about passive smoking --NIRI PATEL- New Scientist vol 141 issue 1910 - 29 January 94, page 16 Tobacco - Rob Sternly (book) My sources for my back round information New Scientist archive (has all the articles above online) Tobacco by Rob Sternly Various other websites and textbooks 1 Tobacco by Rob Sternly 2 New Scientist vol 136 issue 1845 - 31 October 92, page 6 3 New Scientist vol 144 issue 1948 - 22 October 94, page 1 4 Tobacco by Rob Sternly 5 New Scientist vol 144 issue 1948 - 22 October 94, page 12 6 New Scientist vol 144 issue 1948 - 22 October 94, page 12 7 New Scientist vol 136 issue 1845 - 31 October 92, page 6 8 Tobacco by Rob Sternly 9New Scientist vol 141 issue 1910 - 29 January 94, page 16 Nathan Sofer Biology course work I and J The costs of smoking cigarettes ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Defence against Disease.

    * The placentas allows only some antibodies to cross from the mother into the fetus C. Rejection of transplanted organs * Transplanted donor tissue will not match that of the recipient perfectly and the immune system of the recipient will react against the non-self material.

  2. Spreadsheet cwk sandwich shop prices

    wider until the fields fit * Then in the column next to the 'Portions' enter 'Cost of portion' as shown Fig 1 * When finished you'll have to work out the cost of a portion * Do this by dividing the cost of a pack by the number of portions

  1. Spreadsheet report

    Week 1 Item No. in stock No. sold No. Left Profit Status Crisps 500 267 233 �16.02 Reorder Chocolate 500 289 211 �28.90 Reorder Drinks 800 404 396 �79.18 Reorder Popcorn 400 189 211 �37.80 In stock Posters 350 181 169 �72.40 In stock sparklers 200 97 103 �25.22 In

  2. Cell death during embryogenesis

    The study of Drosophila melanogaster mutants that completely lack developmental apoptosis has allowed this question to be addressed. These studies indicate that in these organisms' apoptosis is not necessary for some aspects of normal development (White et al., 1994). However it is now clear that the components of the apoptotic

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work