• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Development of the Periodic Table of the Elements

Extracts from this document...


The Development of the Periodic Table of the Elements The periodic table is defined as the most common arrangement of the periodic system. This is the classification of chemical elements into periods (corresponding to the filling of successive electron shells) and groups (corresponding to the number of valence electrons) and describes the modern version that is used today. However, this was not always how it was structured and described - like the atom, the Periodic Table has been developed over time due to the contributions of a number of scientists (and is still developing even today). Long before the development of the modern Periodic Table, ancient philosophers such as Aristotle believed the world to be made up of four distinct elements: earth, water, air and fire. Although this is not true, they were thinking along the right lines as these are examples of the states of matter solids, liquids, gases and plasma. The first significant contribution towards the modern Periodic Table was made by the French chemist Lavoisier in 1789, who with his wife compiled the first modern chemical textbook named Traite Elementaire de Chimie (Elementary Treatise of Chemistry), which included a list of the known elements at the time. ...read more.


He went a step further and numbered them in order of increasing atomic weight, so that it was clear just by looking at the elements. This was an important step forward but unfortunately there were limitations to his work. Firstly, he did not leave gaps in his version of the table, so new elements had no placement and would need a completely new table to be devised to accommodate them. Secondly, there were many groupings in his table where there are no obvious similarities. Some of his elements were later discovered to actually be compounds, for example "didymium", which was actually a mixture of praseodymium and neodymium. Additionally, his use of the word "octave" led to other scientists making a mockery of him and his work as this was a musical term, so they were not able to fully appreciate his work. The most famous contribution to the Periodic Table was by Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev, the Russian chemist whose name is attributed to the table. Independently of Newlands, he published his own version of the Periodic Table, which was more advanced than any at the time. ...read more.


Now the electronic structure of the elements could be used to explain their properties, and scientist could say why certain elements behaved the way they do. Furthermore, this alteration was more robust as the Periodic Law now did not have any exceptions to it. Another contribution was by the American scientist Glenn Seaborg, who discovered the heavy elements from plutonium (atomic number 94) to nobelium (atomic number 102). He placed the actinide series below the lanthanide series in the Periodic Table as well - a logical arrangement. Nowadays, the Periodic Table continues to develop with new discoveries of elements beyond atomic number 104 (rutherfordium) and an increased understanding of atomic structure as a result of developments by Quantum physicists such as Neils Bohr (e.g. discreet quantization) and Wolfgang Pauli (e.g. the Pauli Exclusion Principle). The Periodic Table now includes electronic configurations and the elements' properties can therefore be explained further. The Periodic Table continues to develop quickly (for example, my Periodic Table poster is now outdated, despite being published only in 2006); it will be interesting to see how the Periodic Table of the Elements develops in the future. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a star student thought of this essay

4 star(s)

Response to the question

This essay starts well, the introduction describes the periodic table and the candidate states the way in which the elements are classified. However it could be improved by the candidate making it clear that they planed to discuss how the ...

Read full review

Response to the question

This essay starts well, the introduction describes the periodic table and the candidate states the way in which the elements are classified. However it could be improved by the candidate making it clear that they planed to discuss how the periodic table was developed, a good introduction should state the topics you plan to cover, this sets the premise of the essay. That said, the candidates overall response is very good, they give a detailed account of the way in which various scientist contributed the the development of the periodic table.

Level of analysis

The candidate gives a clear and detailed account of the way in which the periodic table was developed. The candidate has clearly taken the time to research this topic extensively which is shown by the addition of a bibliography starting the resources that the candidate has used. Furthermore the candidate has taken the time to right up a account in their own words, which is evident by the language used, this demonstrates a good understanding of this topic. Finally, the candidate ends this essay with an appropriate conclusion, they state that the future will see further developments and they add a personal touch, you should always try to give a personal reaction. However, the conclusion could be improved by summarising the key facts, perhaps by listing the scientists involved in developing the periodic table with a brief sentence on each, this allows you to tie up loose ends and bring everything together, which helps draw the essay to a close.

Quality of writing

This essay is very well written, it is easy to follow and the information is provided in a clear and coherent manor. In addition to this there are no obvious issues with spelling punctuation or grammar.

Did you find this review helpful? Join our team of reviewers and help other students learn

Reviewed by pictureperfect 12/07/2012

Read less
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Finding out how much acid there is in a solution

    + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) From the equation, I can see that the ratio of sodium carbonate to sulphuric acid is 1:1.

  2. Identification of an Organic Unknown

    I have chosen to do the Fehling's experiment. This experiment is used to discover an aldehyde as Fehling's solution contains Cu ions. When this is added to aldehyde the aldehyde is oxidised to a salt of a carboxylic acid and the Fehling's solution is reduced.

  1. Demonstrate an understanding of the theory, principles and practice of separation of liquid mixtures ...

    If the temperature is then increased further, then more of the liquid will become a vapour, increasing the vapour pressure that is present. 3. relate vapour pressures to the boiling points of liquids a pure liquids Pure liquids produce a vapour when the pressure at the surface of the vapour equals the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere.

  2. AQA As Applied Science Unit 3. Colorimetry experiment on Ribena juices

    If I was to fall or anyone else was to I will call for help from a teacher, if I feel too much pain I will then go seek first aid to make sure everything is ok. I will make sure that the graph paper is used and placed appropriately to avoid any harm from occurring.

  1. Chemical Structure and Bonding

    They are formed when an atom of hydrogen bonds with atoms of oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine. These elements are strongly electronegative and so attract the electron from hydrogen toward them, leaving the hydrogen nucleus exposed. This creates a positive charge from the proton and the molecule becomes polarised.

  2. Activity Series of Metals Lab

    +CuNo3(aq) 8 Tin Lead (II) Nitrate reaction Sn(s) + Pb(NO3)2(aq)->Pb(s) +Sn(NO3)2(aq) 9 Lead Zinc Chloride non-reaction Pb(s) + ZnCl2(aq) -> NR 10 Iron Copper (II) Sulfate reaction Fe(s) + Cu2(SO4)(aq) -> 2Cu(s) +Fe(SO4)(aq) The tests 2, 5 and 9 were predicted to show no chemical reaction at all.

  1. How does the temperature of water affect the amount of dissolved oxygen it contains?

    sulfate solution followed by 1ml of alkali-iodide solution to the heat treated water. Be sure to use separate droppers for each solution so you don?t contaminate anything. 9. Immediately re-stopper to reduce mixing with air. 10. Invert the flask a few times.

  2. Atomic Structure, Bonding and the Periodic Table. Revision questions.

    Although the nuclear charge is greater in lithium, which has an extra proton, the effective nuclear charge is less. This is because the attractive force exerted on the 2s electron is reduced because of its increased distance from the atomic nuclei, and the shielding effect of the 1s orbital, meaning less energy is needed to remove it.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work