The differences and similarities of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells.
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The differences and similarities of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells Introduction Cells are the basic building blocks of life. Cells across all types of organisms can be fundamentally categorised into being either Euraryotic or Prokaryotic cells. Any organism usually only contains type of the given cells but not both. Prokaryotic are very simple cells that have existed since the dawn of life and are generally smaller than the more complex Eukaryotic cells. Bacteria are made up of one or more prokaryotic cells. While Eukaryotic cells are found inside plant and animal life. Eukaryotic cells are more advanced and larger. History Around 3.5 billion years ago life first began on earth in the form of very simplistic Prokaryotic cells. These evolved from microspheres that formed from out of a primordial soup that contained the ingredients of life. 3.5 billion years later these cells still exist today. Then approximately 1.8 billion years ago Eukaryotic cells first evolved. This was a really big step in the evolution of life.
The Eukaryotic cell has a nucleolus present inside the nuclear body this is where ribosomal subunits are assembled. The nuclear body in a Eukaryotic cell is called a nucleus. The nuclear body in a Prokaryotic cell is not bounded by a nuclear membrane unlike the Eukaryotic cell. The nuclear body in a Prokaryotic cell usually contains one singular chromosome composed of DNA. Unlike the Eukaryotic cell the Prokaryotic cell does not have a nucleolus. The nuclear body in a Prokaryotic cell is called a nucleoid. Cell division Cell division in Eukaryotic cells occurs by mitosis apart from in diploid sex cells where the reproduction occurs by meiosis. In a prokaryotic cell the cell division occurs by binary fission cells are haploid so no meiosis is required. Cell membrane The cell membrane in a Eukaryotic cell consists of a fluid phospholipid bilayer that includes sterols (complex lipids found in the membranes of eukaryotic cells) as well as carbohydrates.
In the Eukaryotic cell a cytoskeleton is present this is a complex series of tubes and filaments that allow movement to occur in the Eukaryotic cell. On the other hand the Prokaryotic cell has no cytoskeleton. Respitory enzymes and electron support chains In the Eukaryotic cell these are located in the mitochondria. This is different than their placement in prokaryotic cells where they are located in the cytoplasmic membrane. Cell wall Plant, algae, and fungi cells that have eukaryotic type cells have cell walls composed usually of cellulose or chitin but never containing peptodoglycan. Animal cells and protozoans that have eukaryotic cells do not have cell walls. Bacteria cell walls are often composed of peptidoglycan, protein, complex carbohydrates, or unique molecules resembling but not exactly the same as peptidoglycan. Locomotor organelles In Eukaryotic cells they may have flagella or cilia, these are surrounded by a membrane. With Prokaryotic cells they may have flagella and are not surrounded by a membrane. Opinion There are few similarities and many differences between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells. Since viruses are acellular and possess both living and nonliving characteristics, they are considered neither prokaryotic nor eukaryotic.
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