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The Effect of Age on Short Term Memory

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Introduction

The effect of age on short-term memory Aim: The Aim of this investigation is to assess how the ageing process affects short-term memory. What is memory? Memory refers to the storage, retention and recall of information including past experiences, knowledge and thoughts. Memory for specific information can vary greatly according to the individual and the individual's state of mind. It can also vary according to the content of the information itself. There are 3 types of memory: * Sensory - Information is passed from sensory memory into short-term memory by attention, thereby filtering the stimuli to only those, which are of interest at a given time. * * Short-term memory - Acts as a scratch pad for temporary recall of the information under process. Short-term memory has a limited capacity. Chunking of information can lead to an increase in the short-term memory capacity. This is why hyphenated phone numbers are easier to remember than a single long number. * * Long-term memory - Is intended for storage of information over a long period of time. Information from the working memory is transferred to it after a few seconds. Unlike in working memory, there is little decay. * The structure and function of the brain The brain, together with the spinal cord, makes up the central nervous system. This is the 'control centre', which coordinates the body's functions. ...read more.

Middle

What is meant by Saltatory conduction ? A fatty material called myelin, which is produced by Schwann cells, surrounds the axons of many neurons. There are gaps in this sheath, called nodes of Ranvier. Action Potentials jump from node to node and so travel more swiftly than in a non-myelinated neurone. The structure and role of a synapses Synapses help to ensure that nerve impulses only pass one way along a neurone. They also help to link many different pathways within the nervous system, allowing information from different sense organs or different parts of the brain to be integrated. Differential growth- Is when different organs show patterns of growth that are not the same as the overall pattern. One of the noticeable things about an infant is that, the head is much larger in proportion to the rest of the body than in an adult. In an embryo and foetus, the head grows more rapidly than other parts of the body. This is related to the growth of the nervous tissue inside it, forming the brain. A foetus's lymphatic system grows more slowly than other parts of the body. This system is involved in the immune response. The foetus does not need it while it is in the uterus because its mother's antibodies cross the placenta and protect the foetus from pathogens. ...read more.

Conclusion

It's not that they forget more easily; it may simply take longer to learn information in the first place. This means they may have to pay closer attention to new information that they want to retain. They may also need to try different strategies to improve learning and trigger memories. When people of all age groups learn something, they retain it equally well, even if the older people need a bit more time to learn it, and perhaps, to retrieve it. A substantial number of 80-year-olds perform as well as people in their 30s on difficult memory tests. Techniques to improve memory * Relax: Tension and stress are associated with memory lapses. Managing stress improves memory. * Concentrate: Your teachers were right: If you want to recall something later, pay attention. * Focus: Try to reduce distractions and minimize interferences. * Slow down: If you're rushing, you may not be focused or paying full attention. * Organize: Keep important items in a designated place that is visible and easily accessed. * Write it down: Carry a notepad and calendar, and write down important things. * Repeat it: Repetition improves recall. Try repeating names when meeting new people, or repeating facts when you're learning new information. * Visualize it: Associating a visual image with something you want to remember can improve recall. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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