• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The effect of bead size on the activity of immobilised Yeast enzymes.

Extracts from this document...


The effect of bead size on the activity of immobilised Yeast enzymes. Introduction; Enzymes serve as biological catalysts and as a result increase the number of reactions occurring within in a set period of time. To a similar effect yeast can be used to increase the rate of a reaction. It is possible to immobilise yeast using a solution such as Sodium alginate. This allows several usage's from the same enzyme batch and it also increases it's own stability. This technique is often seen in use in industry, one example of this is that seen in the textile industry. Yeast uses Sucrose as a form of energy, and can then hydrolyse it internally and brings out its constituent monosacharides. Using this, it is possible to investigate whether the size of the yeast beads affects the reaction, which takes place. In theory, the greater the surface area of the beads, the slower the rate of reaction as less of the Yeast selectively permeable membrane are outward facing in order to further the reaction. Consequently the smaller the bead the faster the Sucrose is Hydrolysed yielding more of it's constituent monosacharides. ...read more.


This is possible to test by varying the bead surface area, and straining Sucrose through them in order to observe whether this hypothesis is provable. The plan continued; The apparatus chosen is best suited to the needs of the experiment. The syringes allow a simple method of varying bead size. The calcium chloride solution allows beads to be formed quickly. Distilled water prevents any extra-chemicular interference. The Glucose test strips provide swift and accurate readings: muslin is used to prevent clogging in the straining process, no beads can block or travel through the bottom of the test syringe. The beakers used are neither unnecessarily small nor excessively large, and are suited to their intended use. Meticulous attention to safety should be observed at all times. Each chemical is to be kept separately at all times and also clearly labelled. The sodium alginate can be irritant to the skin and appropriate warnings should be included. Non of the chemicals should be handled directly and all glassware should be kept in a sensible location. Unused solution should be kept away from the test area and eventually disposed of with all the equipment cleaned with extra care. ...read more.


Another point is that the apparatus should also be cleaned, so that none of it directly used and comes in contact with the second test. Once the yeast has been immobilised, there are different ways of conducting the experiment in order to achieve the desired results. The other possibility, which I explored was to place the beads in a petris dish and add the sucrose then however this would have been less efficient, as each would have to be tested simultaneously, so no extra hydrolysis time could have been given. In addition the solutions would have been reacting during testing, reducing result accuracy and configuration. Diagram of Setup; From the evidence collated the results should incline towards the greater Glucose yield being towards the smaller beads owing to the superior surface area exposing larger surface of the selectively permeable membrane to be able to obtain the Sucrose. Throughout the experiment safety guidelines should be followed at all times. Goggles should be worn at all times and chemicals mixed individually. Although the reactions are not volatile by nature, all chemicals should be handled cautiously using a spatula however if any skin contact is made it should be washed off immediately using water. Gurvinder Thind Biology Coursework 12G_Mr Richards. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Biology coursework planning - the effect of lead chloride on the growth of cress ...

    5 star(s)

    If the structure of chloroplasts is also altered, then the processes involved photosynthesis may not take place at all as well. Overall, the rate of photosynthesis is reduced. Water is involved in the germination of seeds. When the seed absorbs water, this results in the stimulation of a plant growth regulator called gibberellin.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Effect Of Temperature On The Permeability Of The Cell Membrane

    3 star(s)

    As temperature rises from 0-40 degrees Celsius, the kinetic energy of the pigment molecules increases and the pigment molecules more rapidly and diffuse out of the cell. From 40 to 60 degrees Celsius the bonds that hold the polypeptide chains within the protein vibrate and break.

  1. Peer reviewed

    "An investigation into the Respiration of Carbohydrate Substrates by Yeast."

    5 star(s)

    Also, the pilot experiment has shown that the optimum temperature for the yeast to work at is about 40�C and any lower than 35�C will prevent maximum gas production. This was done by adding more hot water to the water bath throughout the experiment.

  2. Optimal Conditions For Everyday Enzymes

    Distilled water * 4-250mL beakers ? Gelatin * 1-100mL beakers ? Meat tenderizer * 7-50mL beakers ? 0.1M HCl * 2-10mL graduated cylinders ? 1.0M NaOH * 1-25mL graduated cylinder * 14-Large test tubes * 1-Small test tube * 1-Stirring rod * 2-Scoopulas * 1-pH meter * 2-Eye droppers * 1-Spectrophotometer * 1-Stopwatch * 1-Electronic balance * 2-Test tube racks * Safety goggles Procedure 1.

  1. AS biology coursework on enzymes

    This will be my end point determination. I will get my results in seconds by using a stopwatch which will show my results correct to 2 decimal places after a colourless solution has appeared. I will determine my end point results by adding 2 drops of iodine to my solution

  2. Design an experiment to investigate the effect of temperature on the movement of a ...

    Also there are prosthetic groups within the proteins. Anthocyanin does not normally move through the membrane. I think that the pigment anthocyanin would move through the membrane via diffusion at high temperatures. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower

  1. Statistical Technique.

    Starch is a polysaccharide, a carbohydrate which is a polymer of monosaccharides. It is made up of many sugar units joined by condensation reactions. Since it is such a large molecule it is also insoluble. Alcoholic fermentation with yeast suspension (water + yeast)

  2. This experiment aims to investigate the effects of 4 different types of fish food ...

    Dependent Variables **** **** Dependent variables are affected by the independent variable, and are measured to see whether the independent variable has had an effect. Dry mass of the fry would be the most accurate way of measuring the growth of fry, however this would be both unethical and impractical,

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work