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The Effect of Different Immbolised Enzymes Bead Sizes On the Hydrolysis of Starch

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Introduction

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT IMMBOLISED ENZYMES BEAD SIZES ON THE HYDROLYSIS OF STARCH Introduction: Without help, all chemical reactions within our bodies would proceed too slowly to be useful. Therefore, they must be catalysed and this means that in addition to the molecules that undergo a change (the reacting molecule), another molecule, the catalyst, must be present in small amounts in order for the reaction to take place at a very substantial level (rate). Enzymes are very meaningful because they catalyse and regulate nearly all biochemical pathways with in the human body. They transform the food we eat into energy and unlock this energy for use in the body. They can not be seen with even the most powerful microscope, but their presence and strength can be determined by improved blood and immune system functions. The actual definition of an enzymes is a 'biochemical catalyst which occurs in all living cells and are involved in most metabolic processes, they are typically proteins with large complex molecules' (The Oxford English Dictionary, 1995). It is a biological catalyst that is involved in anabolic (synthesis of molecules) and catabolic (breakdown of molecules) reactions. Enzymes alter such factors as the rate and conditions under which chemical reactions occur, by altering the activation energy of the reaction. The activation energy is the barrier that must be overcome in order for chemicals to react and form products. ...read more.

Middle

A 0 12 17 25 33 37 44 56 57 63 69 37.55 B 0 17 22 26 30 37 48 60 65 70 75 40.91 C 0 20 24 29 34 39 44 62 69 73 77 42.82 % Mean of Times (2 sig. Fig) 0 16 20 26 32 38 45 59 67 69 74 45.55 Small Beads (colorimeter %) A 0 27 42 57 65 70 71 73 75 77 79 57.82 B 0 27 35 44 56 68 71 73 75 77 85 55.55 C 0 27 46 56 69 73 76 79 76 81 83 60.55 % Mean of Times (2 sig. Fig) 0 27 41 52 63 70 73 74 75 78 82 57.73 Mean of Samples: the mean of a bead reading at all its time intervals Mean of Time (Big Beads): the mean of the 3 big beads at each time interval Mean of Time (Small Beads): the mean of the 3 small beads at each time interval. Ratio of means of samples of big beads and small beads: RESULT A = 37.55: 57.82 � 19/29 = 0.655 (3 d.p) RESULT B= 40.91: 55.55 � 25/28 = 0.893 ( 3 d.p) RESULT C= 42.82: 60.55 � 42/60 = 0.7 MEAN OF SAMPLES OF MEAN OF TIME= 45.55: 57.73 � 46/58 = 0.793 (3 d.p) STANDARD DEVIATION: VARIANCE: DISCUSSION: By looking at my result through my table and ultimately from my graph, it is clear that the enzyme was more effective being attached onto the smaller beads, just as I predicted in my hypothesis. ...read more.

Conclusion

I was very precise with the concentrations I used and I made sure that the threat of cross contamination was irradiated as tried my best to use new test tubes for each sample. Even so, when I had no choice but to use a used test tube, I made sure I washed it precisely with distilled water. I choose to take 3 ml samples from the syringes due to the fact that I had initially planned on using 50 ml of starch, it was appropriate to use 3 ml as test samples at the time interval as it was easier and clear to read on the syringe. This way, there would be less change of the beads blocking the syringe. I choose the five-minute (300-sec) time range because I felt that with the amount of substrate and with the conclusion of the trail run. It was the most suitable time range to choose in consideration to the amount of substrate I had and would have left in case of errors. I also choose to use two drops of iodine in testing the samples so that the concentration of the iodine did not alter my results. I had no real safety precautions to take into consideration except general lab rules that I tired my best to keep to. However, care had to be taken around the being iodine used. Iodine is a very poisonous chemical and I took care to make sure that I did not leave it lying around without being covered or placed in a safe position. ?? ?? ?? ?? Bisi Ayedun 02/05/07 6RM 1 ...read more.

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