• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of an enzymic controlled reaction.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

AS Level Biology Practical Skills Assessment Eloise Tarling The effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of an enzymic controlled reaction. The effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of an enzymic controlled reaction. Enzymes are protein molecules, which can be defined as Biological catalysts, which alter the rate of a reaction without the enzymes undergoing change themselves. Enzymes are usually specific to one singular reaction. Enzymes are globular proteins with the helix coiled into a precise three-dimensional tertiary structure, with Hydrophilic R groups held by four different types of bonds: 1. Hydrogen 2. Disulphide 3. Ionic 4. Hydrophilic / Hydrophobic Enzymes possess an active site, a region, usually a cleft or depression to which another molecule can bind. This specific molecule is the enzymes' substrate. The precise shape of the active site allows the substrate to bind perfectly to the active site. ...read more.

Middle

When investigating the effect of enzyme concentration it is fairest to look at initial rate of reaction, as once the reaction is underway, the amount of substrate available in the reaction begins to vary, as substrate is converted to products at different rates, all depending upon concentration. When the Enzyme-Substrate Complex is initially formed, there are a large number of substrate molecules available, meaning every enzyme molecule has a substrate molecule in its active site. This allows for the V Max rate of reaction, V Max being where the enzyme is working at its maximum possible rate. Rate of reaction depends upon the number of enzyme molecules available, and the speed at which the enzyme molecules convert substrate molecules into products. As the reaction continues, there are gradually fewer substrate molecules, meaning the speed of the reaction will decrease until the reaction eventually ceases. ...read more.

Conclusion

* The lower the enzyme concentration, the slower the rate of the reaction. During this investigation, I will be controlling the following variables: * Temperature (consistent at 40 C). * Time of recording results (every 30 seconds for 5 minutes, including a reading at 0). Prior to this investigation, I carried out the experiment that I will be using for my practical assessment to familiarise myself with the method. However, in my preliminary experiment, I focussed upon identifying the course of an enzyme-controlled reaction. For this investigation, I will be altering the concentrations of enzyme, temperatures, and times of recording results, from those used in my preliminary experiment. I will be using 5 different enzyme concentrations, opposed to the single concentration included in the preliminary experiment, and I will be concentrating upon one particular temperature, being 40 C. In order ensure the validity of my experiment; I will take three recording of each enzyme concentration at 40 C, instead of one, as in my preliminary experiment. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Following the Progress of an Enzyme Controlled Reaction

    4 star(s)

    increase the rate at which they work and the rate of motion that they incur. The general optimum temperature at which enzyme are most suited to is at around 40-50 degrees c. However this varies from different enzymes and this optimum temperature bay fluctuate or is reduced.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Beetroot Practical Write up

    3 star(s)

    The standard deviation shows that the year's results were quite accurate because each spread of data is considerably comparable. Research of ethanol and the effects of this on the cell membranes of beetroot showed that the pH affects proteins that are essential on the cell membrane.

  1. WHAT EFFECT DOES SUBSTRATE HAVE ON THE RATE OF RESPIRATION IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE?

    The final substrate that I am testing is lactose. This substrate is a disaccharide made from one molecule of glucose and one molecule of galactose. It also requires a digestive enzyme to hydrolyse it and break it down before it can enter the cytoplasm of the saccharomyces cerevisiae cells by facilitated diffusion.

  2. Catalyse Investigation

    By calculating the rate of reaction instead of merely using the time readings, graphs of the rate of reaction against temperature will be easier to analyse since the quicker reactions will be represented as a greater value for the rate of reaction rather than a small time value.

  1. The effect of temperature on an enzyme controlled reaction

    Though if the temperature is too high (500C) the catalase enzymes will start to denature because the active site of the enzyme will become deformed and the particles of H2O2 will not be able to fit into the enzyme. Hence the molecules will not be broken down, decreasing the rate of reaction.

  2. Should homeopathy be available on the NHS?

    8 (36%) 3 (14%) 22 TOTAL 63 (44%) 11 (8%) 68 (48%) 142 As you can see, (85%) one hundred and twenty out of a possible one hundred and forty-two randomised controlled trials were controlled by placebos. (15%) Twenty-two RCTs were controlled by a medical device excluding "dummy" drugs.

  1. the effect of substrate concentration on the rate of an anzyme reaction

    There are four factors that can affect the rate of an enzymes reaction: The pH, the temperature, the concentration of the enzyme solution and the concentration of the substrate solution. The pH can affect the rate of an enzyme-catalysed reaction by affecting the bonds in the secondary and tertiary structure of the enzyme's active site.

  2. An Investigation into the effect of varying enzyme concentration on the rate of an ...

    This increases the chances of them hitting each other. Between 5� and 40�C the rate of reaction doubles for every 10�C rise in the temperature. The optimum temperature for enzymes to work at is human body temperature, which is around 37�C.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work