• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11

The effect of enzyme concentrations on the reaction time of Urease active meal.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Title: The effect of enzyme concentrations on the reaction time of Urease active meal. Aim: My aim of this investigation is to investigate the effect of enzyme Urease concentrations on reaction time. Urease is the enzyme used to breakdown urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia. I have chosen to carry out this investigation because there are many different areas of biology linked with this investigation that are of interest to me. In addition, enzymes are one of the most important and fascinating molecules found in the body and I would enjoy learning more about the fascinating compound for my own pleasure. Introduction: Enzymes are biological organic catalysts. They are specialised globular proteins with a complete tertiary structure that give it the property of being specific for one biochemical reaction that takes place inside every living cell. Many reactions that take place inside living organisms are very slow without the presence of an enzyme. Enzymes act as biological catalysts that allow reactions to take place rapidly in conditions that are found inside living cells without being chemically used up or changed themselves. Each different type of enzyme has a unique three-dimensional structure that enables the enzyme to catalyse one type of reaction. They may affect one particular biochemical reaction strongly but leave a similar reaction unaffected. In an enzyme catalysed reaction, the reactance, also known as the substrate, binds to the enzyme at specific points known as the active site to form an enzyme-substrate complex. The precise shape of the acitive site is important inorder for the substrate to combine to the enzyme as the substrate is the complementary shape to the active site. The diagram below represents this: The overall three - dimensional shape of a polypeptide chain is referred to as the enzymes tertiary structure. In globular proteins, the polypeptide chains are tightly folded to form a spherical shape. Many globular proteins are folded so that their hydrophobic groups are on the inside of the molecule and the hydrophilic groups face outwards, making these proteins suitable in water. ...read more.

Middle

- to contain standard solutions accurately * 200cm3 volumetric flask &stopper (x2) - to contain standard solutions accurately * 1000cm3 volumetric flask &stopper (x1) - to contain standard solutions accurately * Funnel - for accurate manipulation of solutions * Test tubes ( 8 x 12) - reaction vessel * Test tube rack - to hold test tubes * Labels - to avoid any confusion with solution and prevent anomalies in my results * Syringe (x4) - to measure and transfer small amounts of solutions accurately * Stop clock - to measure the time Chemicals: * Distilled water and wash bottle - to rinse out impurities and dilute solutions * 3% Urease solution - source of enzyme * 2% urea solution - source of substrate * pH5 buffer solution - to maintain pH of solution * pH7 buffer solution - to maintain pH of solution * pH7.5 buffer solution - - to maintain pH of solution * Phenolphthalein indicator - to indicate end point of the reaction * Bromothymol Blue indicator - to indicate end point of the reaction Risk assessment Below is a list of all the chemicals I will be using for my experiment and the risks involved with them: * Urea - toxic * Ammonia - highly toxic * pH5 solution - weak alkali * pH7 buffer solution - * pH7.5 buffer solution - * Urease enzyme - * Phenolphthalein indicator - irritant to eyes, skin and respiratory system. * Bromothymol Blue indicator - Safety Extreme care must be taken when handling all the chemicals mentioned above, as they can be hazardous not only to myself but to other people around me. To ensure the safety and minimise risk from the nature of the hazards exposed to others, and myself I will: * Make sure that protective clothing i.e. safety glasses; lab coat and protective gloves are worn throughout the experiment. * Keep hazardous chemicals away from naked flames, as the chemicals I am using are flammable. ...read more.

Conclusion

in minutes, of enzyme concentration using Bromothymol blue indicator Experiment 2 - using Bromothymol blue Test tube number Rough 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 11.33 11.31 1.32 12.06 11.52 11.42 11.43 11.42 11.24 11.53 11.37 11.48 11.36 2 7.06 6.29 6.52 6.23 6.42 6.27 6.16 6.14 6.26 6.34 6.25 6.32 6.46 3 4.32 4.50 4.53 4.53 4.42 4.29 4.38 4.41 4.42 4.16 4.35 4.59 4.51 4 2.43 2.53 2.44 2.39 2.46 3.05 2.43 2.46 2.47 2.58 3.03 3.01 2.58 5 2.15 2.25 2.23 2.22 2.18 2.17 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.23 2.19 2.16 2.21 6 2.08 2.03 1.56 1.53 2.03 1.41 1.56 2.03 2.04 1.52 1.49 2.05 2.06 7 1.23 1.16 1.13 1.14 1.10 1.21 1.15 1.20 1.17 1.18 1.09 1.22 1.23 8 1.02 10.53 0.54 0.49 1.03 1.06 0.48 0.46 0.57 0.53 0.47 0.51 0.55 Analysis Below is a table showing the reaction time converted into seconds. Experiment 1: phenolphthalein Test tube number Rough 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Experiment 2 - using Bromothymol blue Test tube number Rough 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Below is a table showing the average of my results in seconds, the reaction time in seconds, and the weighted reaction time. Average = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 + 11 + 12 12 weighted reaction time = average reaction time (secs) X conversion factor Experiment 1: phenolphthalein Test tube number Reaction time (secs) Conversion factor Weighted reaction time (secs) 1 0.0667 2 0.1333 3 0.2000 4 0.2667 5 0.4000 6 0.5333 7 0.6667 8 1.0000 Experiment 2: Bromothymol blue Test tube number Reaction time (secs) Conversion factor Weighted reaction time (secs) 1 0.0667 2 0.1333 3 0.2000 4 0.2667 5 0.4000 6 0.5333 7 0.6667 8 1.0000 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    How does the concentration of enzymes affect the breakdown of starch by a-amylase in ...

    4 star(s)

    the lid grid (the lines drawn on the lid of the plate earlier on). Use a mounted needle to remove the centres of the holes bored. If done properly, what should be left is an agar plate with three wells equidistantly spaced apart on them.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the inhibiting effect of tomato juice on the germination of cress ...

    3 star(s)

    I would need to carry out other experiments to determine this, for example I could use juice from another fruit to see if it has the same effect. However, my research suggests that tomato juice does in fact contain inhibitors (scientists have thoroughly investigated it and come to this conclusion).

  1. Investigation of the effect of adding different concentrations of NaCl to an enzyme-substrate (amylase-starch) ...

    take place and therefore speed up the overall rate of reaction without changing the temperature at which the reaction occurs. Enzymes are biological catalysts, with the ability to increase the rate of reaction by a factor of at least a million.

  2. An Investigation Into the Effect of Substrate Concentration On the Rate of Enzyme Activity.

    The heat block was then set to a temperature of 80oC. 6 test tubes were taken and filled with 10cm3 of hydrogen peroxide solution. The test tubes were then placed into the heat block for 5 minutes to allow them to rise to the required temperature.

  1. Investigating the Effect of pH on Enzymes

    Different enzymes in the amylase group work in different ways and on different bonds in the starch molecule. The diagram on the following page summarises the action of 4 different amylases and gives the products that they form. Now I have all the background knowledge that I require I can make a hypothesis based on it.

  2. Investigating the effect of pH on the activity of an enzyme.

    * Leave the test tubes in water bath of 30�C for 10minutes. * When 10 minutes is over remove the photographic film as this will top the reaction as no substrate is present anymore. * Shake the solution and record observations of colour change.

  1. Trypsin. Hypothesis: - I hypothesize that as the temperature increases the rate of enzyme ...

    If the chemical potential energy of the molecules becomes great enough, the activation energy of an exergonic reaction can be achieved and a change in chemical state will result. Thus the greater the kinetic energy of the molecules in a system, the greater is the resulting chemical potential energy when two molecules collide.

  2. Catalyse Investigation

    The precision of this experiment, generally, was very limited since insufficient readings were taken. Although the range of enzyme concentrations taken was large, the difference in enzyme concentration between each reading was too great to distinguish a value between them.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work