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The Effect of Soaking on the Action of Catalase.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

AS Biology Coursework The Effect of Soaking on the Action of Catalase Planning Aim My task is to investigate how the length of time that a seed, which in this case is red kidney beans, is soaked in water affects the speed of its catalase enzymes. Introduction Enzymes are biological catalysts, so they speed up the rate of chemical reactions. To do this the enzymes lower the activation energy. They speed up metabolic reactions in the body but remain chemically unchanged. In my investigation I will be using the enzyme catalase. Catalase is an enzyme which is found in food such as potato and liver. This enzyme has the specific task of decomposing Hydrogen Peroxide (which is the substrate), and is used for removing Hydrogen Peroxide from the cells. Hydrogen Peroxide is a poisonous by-product of metabolism that can damage cells if it's not removed. The equation for the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide is :-(www.student.ccbc.cc.md.us) 2H20 H2O + O2 Hydrogen Peroxide Water + Oxygen Catalase speeds up the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide into water and oxygen. This type of reaction when a molecule is broken down into smaller pieces is called an anabolic reaction. In order to record the reaction rate I will measure the amount of oxygen produced. Catalase is nearly ubiquitous among the organisms that grow in the presence of oxygen. Seeing as Hydrogen Peroxide is a very toxic substance the major function of catalase is to prevent the accumulation of toxic levels of Hydrogen Peroxide formed as a by -product of metabolic processes.(www.science-projects.com) Red kidney beans are seeds that contain a large supply of catalase. This enzyme is present in the cells of the cotyledons. These are the food store of the seed, which are protected by a tough outer layer called the testa. For the reaction to occur the hydrogen peroxide will have to react with the cotyledons, as the enzyme catalase has been stored there. ...read more.

Middle

> pH Buffer > Blender > Red kidney Beans-5g > Weighing Boat > Hydrogen Peroxide > Stop Watch - I can time the rate of reaction more precisely. Consequently there will be fewer inaccuracies. > Bunsen Burner Fair Test In order to make the experiment fair I will be undertaking the following things, so they can be controlled: > The hydrogen peroxide must be the same throughout the experiment. > The weight of the kidney beans must be constant. > Keep the pH constant using pH 7 buffer. > The time taken to measure the volume of oxygen produced must be constant at 2 minutes, so that I can compare the results of my experiments accurately. > Time for kidney beans to be grinded must constant, so the surface areas of the kidney beans do not be different as this can affect the enzyme activity. > The temperature must be kept constant at 25�C so this does not affect the enzymes activity. After controlling these variables I would have accurate results when repeating this experiment. Preliminary Experiments Before I conducted my experiment I did preliminary experiments just so that I can the right balance of equipment to use. I did two preliminary experiments to give me an indication of what volumes to use. I soaked for 0 minutes and used 5cm� of hydrogen peroxide. I grinded the kidney beans for 5 seconds, and added 3 drops of pH 7 buffer. The result I got was that 17.5cm� of oxygen was produced in a reaction where I used 10g of kidney beans. This shows that I used less hydrogen peroxide and more kidney beans which in fact made the reaction much slower. Therefore I decided to make some changes in my next preliminary experiment. Here I soaked for 0 minutes and used 10cm� of hydrogen peroxide, where I heated this toxic up to 25�C. I also used a water bath to heat the water to 25�C. ...read more.

Conclusion

For example instead of using 0-5 hours I could have done 0-20 hours at intervals of about 4. This might have given me a clearer picture of the results. It would have given me additional knowledge of the rate of reaction. I could have also timed the experiment for longer to about 4 minutes to see what happens to the gas, and therefore the rate. This method might have given me more accurate results. I also would have liked to have repeated each experiment at least 3 times. This would enable me to produce better averages, and therefore resulting in more reliable results. Accuracy I would say my results are fairly accurate as they do resemble my prediction. By observing my graph I notice that there are two points which are not neatly on the line following the pattern of the graph. The first point is at 2 hours - 46.0cm� The second point is at 5 hours - 52.45cm� I think the main reason as to why these were a bit inaccurate was due to me leaving these beans to soak longer than necessary, as I did not use a stopwatch to time the soaking and instead used a normal watch. When comparing my results with a friend who had done the same experiment I established that the results were fairly similar. This also proved to me that my experiment was comparatively accurate. Reliability My results are reliable as they contradict the ones that are in the text book. They also follow the same results as my friends. This gives me a somewhat idea of how reliable my results are. From analysing my results I can say that my results my original result are fairly similar to the replicate experiments. This again shows how successful my experiment was, as I had less errors and more accuracy. I am able to draw a valid conclusion from my results and say that as the soaking of the beans increased so did the rate of reaction, but soon the rate kept constant. Muneeb Ali ...read more.

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