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The Effect of Temperature on Enzymes.

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��ࡱ�>�� HJ����G�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������5@ ��0�Lbjbj�2�2 (\�X�X2B�������������������8� �,�#v********�������$�R����*****���**�ppp*�*�*�p*�pp����* b�?Ø��*���0#�� *F� �������� �� **p*****��pThe Effect of Temperature on Enzymes Planning Introduction: An Enzyme is any one of many specialised organic substances, composed of polymers of amino acids, that act as catalysts to regulate the speed of the many chemical reactions involved in the metabolism of living organisms. Those enzymes identified now number more than 700. Enzymes are classified into several broad categories, such as hydrolytic, oxidising, and reducing, depending on the type of reaction they control. Hydrolytic enzymes accelerate reactions in which a substance is broken down into simpler compounds through reaction with water molecules. Oxidising enzymes, known as oxidises, accelerate oxidation reactions; reducing enzymes speed up reduction reactions, in which oxygen is removed. Many other enzymes catalyse other types of reactions. Individual enzymes are named by adding ASE to the name of the substrate with which they react. The enzyme that controls urea decomposition is called urease; those that control protein hydrolyses are known as proteinases. Some enzymes, such as the proteinases trypsin and pepsin, retain the names used before this nomenclature was adopted. ( Fig 1.0 on the following page ) Structure and Function of an Enzyme Enzymes are large proteins that speed up chemical reactions. In their globular structure, one or more polypeptide chains twist and fold, bringing together a small number of amino acids to form the active site, or the location on the enzyme where the substrate binds and the reaction takes place. Enzyme and substrate fail to bind if their shapes do not match exactly. This ensures that the enzyme does not participate in the wrong reaction. The enzyme itself is unaffected by the reaction. When the products have been released, the enzyme is ready to bind with a new substrate. Properties of Enzymes As the Swedish chemist J�ns Jakob Berzelius suggested in 1823, enzymes are typical catalysts: they are capable of increasing the rate of reaction without being consumed in the process. ...read more.


I will be using sharp razors during the experiment so I will have to be cautious about that. Hypothesis: My prediction is supported by Kinetic Theory in that if I apply twice as much heat there will be twice as much particle vibration therefore the reaction will happen twice as quickly. It is also backed by Collision Theory in that if I apply twice as much heat there will be twice as many collisions and therefore the rate of reaction will double. This will only be so until the enzyme denatures after its optimum temperature: 40 - 45�C. Predictions: I predict that the enzyme will become denatured, and therefore will work at a slower rate after 40 - 45�C. I think the reason for this prediction is because every enzyme has a temperature range of optimum activity. Outside that temperature range the enzyme is rendered inactive. This occurs because as the temperature changes enough energy is supplied to break some of the molecular bonds. When these forces are disturbed and changed the active site becomes altered in its ability to accommodate the substrate molecules it was intended to catalase. Most enzymes in a human body shut down beyond certain temperatures. This can happen if body temperature gets too low (hypothermia), or too high (hypothermia). From my background knowledge it is evident that as temperature increases, the rate of reaction also increases. However, the stability of the protein also decreases due to thermal degradation. Holding the enzyme at a high enough temperature for a long period of time may cook the enzyme. Reaction rate is the speed at which the reaction proceeds toward equilibrium. For an enzyme-catalysed reaction, the rate is usually expressed in the amount of product produced per minute. The energy barrier between reactions and products governs reaction rate. In general, energy must be added to the reactants to overcome the energy barrier. ...read more.


Next time I would use longer discs, maybe even the same weight so that it would be easier to judge how long they are. If I repeated the experiment I would also take more readings for example at every 5�C because if I did this I would be able to plot a more accurate graph and it would be easier and more accurate to tell when the enzyme got to the optimum and denaturing temperatures. The evidence that I obtained is sufficient enough to support the conclusions I have come to about the values for the optimum and denaturing temperatures because I conducted my experiment as accurately as I could whit the method I used and did quite a large range and number of repetitions to the results reliable. This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ 1J2J�J�JKK�K�K�K�KhLiL�L�L�L�L������������h�Rh�ROJQJh�Rh�RCJOJQJ%h�Rh�ROJQJfHq� ����)h�Rh�RCJOJQJfHq� ����h�Rh�g� h�g�h�R%&/0N 2 � � � %���#���Z[st�������������������������������gd�g�2J�L����������.=Jd�������34x#y#�#�#�#�#�#�#$�����������������������������gd�g�$$r$I&J& ((�)�)�,y6�6�6�6�6�6�6�6 77@7N7d7s7�7�7�7�7�7�7�����������������������������gd�g��7�7�7�7A8\:]:r=>???r@s@t@�@�@�E�E�H�H2J�J�J�J�JKKKK���������������������������$a$gd�Rgd�g�K�K�K�K�K�K�K�K�KiLjLkLlL�L�L�L�L�L�L������������������gd�g�$a$gd�R$a$gd�R&1�h:p�g���/ ��=!�'"�'#��$��%��D@�D NormalCJ_H aJmH nHsH tHDA@�D Default Paragraph FontRi�R Table Normal�4� l4�a� (k�(No ListDZ@�D �g� Plain TextCJOJQJ^JaJ4@4 �RHeader ���!4 @4 �RFooter ���!`�o"` �Rwatermark header$a$CJOJQJfHq� ����N�o2N �Rwatermark footer$a$ CJOJQJ�D\����r�V�:���L'�$�7K�L(*+,-�L)2B�BC�C�C�C�CjDlD�D�D��alex��R�g��@2B]��DP@��Unknown������������G��z ��Times New Roman5V��Symbol3&� �z ��Arial7&� � �VerdanaG5�� �����h�MS Mincho-�3� fg?5� �z ��Courier New"1���h�:�&�:�&�:�&� �6[+� �6[+$�������4?B?B3�� H�?�������������������g���$The Effect of Temperature on EnzymesTCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution ProhibitedTCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution Prohibitedalexalex�� ��Oh��+'��0����0@��� 4 @ L Xdlt|�%The Effect of Temperature on EnzymessofUCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution ProhibitedualexewoUCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution Prohibitedu>Downloaded from Coursework.Info - http://www.coursework.info/is Normal.dotfalexl.d2exMicrosoft Word 10.0@@�(<Ø�@�(<Ø�@�(<Ø�� �6�� ��Õ.��+,��D��Õ.��+,���@���H����� ���� � !�UCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution ProhibitedratUCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution ProhibitedratUCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution Prohibitedrat�B+[?BA %The Effect of Temperature on Enzymes Titled@���+K_PID_LINKBASE CopyrightDownloaded FromCan RedistributeOwner�A4http://www.coursework.comcoursework.comehttp://www.coursework.comnzNo, do not redistributecoursework.com/ !"#$%&'()*+,-.����0123456����89:;<=>����@ABCDEF��������I����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Root Entry�������� �F`L�?Ø�K�1Table��������/WordDocument��������(\SummaryInformation(����7DocumentSummaryInformation8������������?CompObj������������j������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ ���� �FMicrosoft Word Document MSWordDocWord.Document.8�9�q ...read more.

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    The hydrogen ion (H+) left over can replace that lost by Glu-35. In either case, the chain is broken, the two fragments separate from the enzyme, and the enzyme is free to attach to a new location on the bacterial cell wall and continue its work of digesting it.

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