• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Effect of the Concentration of an Inhibitor on The time taken for the Enzyme to Fully Breakdown the Substrate

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Effect of the Concentration of an Inhibitor on The time taken for the Enzyme to Fully Breakdown the Substrate Aim For this investigation I am going to investigate the effect of the concentration of an inhibitor, on the time taken for the enzyme to fully breakdown the substrate. Introduction I am going to complete my aim by planning an experiment, carrying out the experiment, recording any relevant results and plotting graphs from which I will be able, hopefully to gain a strong conclusion. I will finally evaluate the whole investigation. I will be using human amylase to breakdown the substrate starch. The reason this enzyme has to be used is because each enzyme is designed specifically to break down only one substrate as each enzyme is made of a protein that causes it to be a specific shape, in this case the enzyme Amylase can only break down starch. Also the inhibitor I will be using is copper sulphate, a heavy metal ion. Background Reading Amylase, like other enzymes, works as a catalyst, i.e. it is unchanged by the reaction, but makes the reaction easier by reducing the energy required for it to happen. Catalysts speed up the reaction. The theory behind the working is called the "lock and key" theory: the enzyme is shaped so that the products fit into them, react and are released. Amylase digests starch by catalysing hydrolysis, which is splitting by the addition of a water molecule. ...read more.

Middle

Where the inhibitor is limiting the rate of reaction. I varied the inhibitor concentration by altering the mass of copper sulphate in 100ml. I decided to use a permanent inhibitor (heavy metal ion) so that the temporary effect of reversible inhibitor does not affect my results. Apparatus Needed * Test Tube Rack * 4 x 5ml syringes * 1 x10ml syringe * 12 x 10 mm diameter Test Tubes * A stop clock * A 250ml Beaker * Thermometer * Ph 7 Buffer * Spotting Tile * Bunsen burner (with Tripod and gauze) * Iodine (with pipette) * Stirring Rod * Kitchen towel * A scale * 8 x 15 ml beakers * Tongs Reason for Equipment * 15 x 10mm diameter test tubes will be used for mixing the amylase with the starch also copper sulphate and pH buffer in the water bath. * The test tubes have to be clean to prevent any unwanted contaminants getting into the experiment. 4x 5ml and 1 x 10 ml (for water) syringe used for very accurate measuring of the amylase, starch solution, water, and copper sulphate. This will be vital for getting the correct volume of the 3 substances into the test tubes and the correct amount of water for dilution. * Thermometer, the most accurate way of measuring the temperature of the water bath. Therefore the temperature of the enzyme and the substrate as well. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is because overall trends between the inhibitor concentration and rate of reaction can be portrayed more effectively and become more obvious Limitations and Precautions I monitored the temperature using a thermometer to ensure that it remained constant and not disrupt the results of the experiment by affecting the activity of the amylase A pH buffer was used to maintain a consistent pH level in the test tubes. This way there was no variation in pH that might have resulted in an increase or decrease in the rate of reaction. A major limitation of this investigation was the time. It meant that only 6 different inhibition concentrations could be measured at intervals 0.01 moles. This means that only very general, overall trends can be identified across the results. Patterns between these values can only be approximated and are not necessarily accurate. Safety Laboratory coats were worn during the investigation to prevent chemicals from spoiling clothes. Safety aspects Goggles must be worn and especially while using the iodine as it can be irritable to the eyes. Stand up while using the Bunsen burner so you can move away quickly should the water bath fall. Any long hair tied back to keep out of way of flames. Results Concentration Experiment 1(time) Experiment 2 (time) 0.01 300.00 300.00 0.02 480.00 480.00 0.03 540.00 540.00 0.04 1020.00 1020.00 0.05 1260.00 1260.00 0.06 2100.00 2100.00 Concentration Average (time) 0.01 300.00 0.02 450.00 0.03 600.00 0.04 960.00 0.05 1290.00 0.06 2040.00 Concentration Average (rate of reaction) 0.01 3.33 0.02 2.22 0.03 1.67 0.04 1.04 0.05 0.78 0.06 0.49 Conclusion ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    How does the concentration of enzymes affect the breakdown of starch by a-amylase in ...

    4 star(s)

    Using a pipette, drop 4/5 drops of each concentration solution into the wells. The agar plates are then placed in an incubator/oven at 26�C for a period of 24 hrs. When the plates are taken out again, the plates are flooded with iodine solution, to show where the enzyme has broken the starch agar down.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    effect of concentration of copper sulphate on the action of amylase to break down ...

    4 star(s)

    crystallography and computer assisted modeling [73], we can say that the active site is actually not a perfect fit to the substrate. So when the substrate approach the active site, either the shape of the substrate or the shape of active site will change slightly so they can fit precisely together.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the inhibiting effect of tomato juice on the germination of cress ...

    3 star(s)

    For instance, the inhibitors can affect the enzyme amylase. Amylase is used to convert starch into glucose. The glucose is then used as a respiratory substrate to produce ATP. Without respiration the seed cannot germinate (because energy/ATP is needed for metabolisms for growth).

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating the effect of temperature on the breakdown of starch by amylase.

    Both test tubes were left to acclimatise in a water bath at 20oC, with a thermometer in each test tube. The tubes were checked every minute and, when both test tubes had reached 20oC, their contents were combined in a separate, larger tube, which had also been left in the water bath.

  1. An experiment to investigate the effect of chloride ion concentration on the activity of ...

    Therefore the possible combinations of subunits are: RR, RT, TR, and TT, however only RR and TT are allowed as the change in one subunit must be mirrored in the second subunit. Due to this it is possible to refer to the whole enzyme as in either the R- state or T-state.

  2. The effect of Copper Sulphate concentration on Catalase activity on Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Volume (ml) Volume (ml) Volume (ml) Volume (ml) Volume (ml) Volume (ml) 30 11.0 10.5 9.5 10.3 0.8 7.4 120 13.5 14.0 13.5 13.7 0.3 2.1 So I can say that the 30 sec series is more dispersed than the 120 series by comparing the CV and not the SD.

  1. How does pH affect the Denaturation of enzymes Starch and Amylase.

    As I put the iodine into the ph 12 and starch, it turned colourless straight away. This confused me, as what should be breaking down the starch was amylase, and as no amylase was present something else must have been affecting my results.

  2. Exploring the Effects of Copper Sulphate as an Inhibitor on the Enzyme Amylase

    Once the amounts of copper sulphate have been collated, set up six boiling tubes (one for each of the amounts) with 20 millimetres of amylase in each, place the tubes into a water bath at a controlled temperature of 37?C Do the same with six boiling tubes containing 20 ml

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work