• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Effect of the Concentration of an Inhibitor on The time taken for the Enzyme to Fully Breakdown the Substrate

Extracts from this document...


The Effect of the Concentration of an Inhibitor on The time taken for the Enzyme to Fully Breakdown the Substrate Aim For this investigation I am going to investigate the effect of the concentration of an inhibitor, on the time taken for the enzyme to fully breakdown the substrate. Introduction I am going to complete my aim by planning an experiment, carrying out the experiment, recording any relevant results and plotting graphs from which I will be able, hopefully to gain a strong conclusion. I will finally evaluate the whole investigation. I will be using human amylase to breakdown the substrate starch. The reason this enzyme has to be used is because each enzyme is designed specifically to break down only one substrate as each enzyme is made of a protein that causes it to be a specific shape, in this case the enzyme Amylase can only break down starch. Also the inhibitor I will be using is copper sulphate, a heavy metal ion. Background Reading Amylase, like other enzymes, works as a catalyst, i.e. it is unchanged by the reaction, but makes the reaction easier by reducing the energy required for it to happen. Catalysts speed up the reaction. The theory behind the working is called the "lock and key" theory: the enzyme is shaped so that the products fit into them, react and are released. Amylase digests starch by catalysing hydrolysis, which is splitting by the addition of a water molecule. ...read more.


Where the inhibitor is limiting the rate of reaction. I varied the inhibitor concentration by altering the mass of copper sulphate in 100ml. I decided to use a permanent inhibitor (heavy metal ion) so that the temporary effect of reversible inhibitor does not affect my results. Apparatus Needed * Test Tube Rack * 4 x 5ml syringes * 1 x10ml syringe * 12 x 10 mm diameter Test Tubes * A stop clock * A 250ml Beaker * Thermometer * Ph 7 Buffer * Spotting Tile * Bunsen burner (with Tripod and gauze) * Iodine (with pipette) * Stirring Rod * Kitchen towel * A scale * 8 x 15 ml beakers * Tongs Reason for Equipment * 15 x 10mm diameter test tubes will be used for mixing the amylase with the starch also copper sulphate and pH buffer in the water bath. * The test tubes have to be clean to prevent any unwanted contaminants getting into the experiment. 4x 5ml and 1 x 10 ml (for water) syringe used for very accurate measuring of the amylase, starch solution, water, and copper sulphate. This will be vital for getting the correct volume of the 3 substances into the test tubes and the correct amount of water for dilution. * Thermometer, the most accurate way of measuring the temperature of the water bath. Therefore the temperature of the enzyme and the substrate as well. ...read more.


This is because overall trends between the inhibitor concentration and rate of reaction can be portrayed more effectively and become more obvious Limitations and Precautions I monitored the temperature using a thermometer to ensure that it remained constant and not disrupt the results of the experiment by affecting the activity of the amylase A pH buffer was used to maintain a consistent pH level in the test tubes. This way there was no variation in pH that might have resulted in an increase or decrease in the rate of reaction. A major limitation of this investigation was the time. It meant that only 6 different inhibition concentrations could be measured at intervals 0.01 moles. This means that only very general, overall trends can be identified across the results. Patterns between these values can only be approximated and are not necessarily accurate. Safety Laboratory coats were worn during the investigation to prevent chemicals from spoiling clothes. Safety aspects Goggles must be worn and especially while using the iodine as it can be irritable to the eyes. Stand up while using the Bunsen burner so you can move away quickly should the water bath fall. Any long hair tied back to keep out of way of flames. Results Concentration Experiment 1(time) Experiment 2 (time) 0.01 300.00 300.00 0.02 480.00 480.00 0.03 540.00 540.00 0.04 1020.00 1020.00 0.05 1260.00 1260.00 0.06 2100.00 2100.00 Concentration Average (time) 0.01 300.00 0.02 450.00 0.03 600.00 0.04 960.00 0.05 1290.00 0.06 2040.00 Concentration Average (rate of reaction) 0.01 3.33 0.02 2.22 0.03 1.67 0.04 1.04 0.05 0.78 0.06 0.49 Conclusion ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the inhibiting effect of tomato juice on the germination of cress ...

    3 star(s)

    had no tomato juice, suggests that there might have been other factors apart from the tomato juice that were affecting germination. Competition between the seeds for water, light, temperature, etc., could have also affected germination. It would be very difficult from this experiment alone to determine what properties of the tomato juice reduce germination.

  2. Exploring the Effects of Copper Sulphate as an Inhibitor on the Enzyme Amylase

    Once the amounts of copper sulphate have been collated, set up six boiling tubes (one for each of the amounts) with 20 millimetres of amylase in each, place the tubes into a water bath at a controlled temperature of 37?C Do the same with six boiling tubes containing 20 ml

  1. The effect of enzyme concentrations on the reaction time of Urease active meal.

    * Carry out my experiment in a ventilated fume cupboard as the chemicals I will be using give off irritating vapours. The fume cupboard will ensure that all toxic gases escape successfully. * Make sure that there are no leading wires from the pipes, the electronic cables from the electronic balance.

  2. An experiment to investigate the effect of chloride ion concentration on the activity of ...

    1% solution * Starch solution - 100cm3 of 1% solution * Sodium Chloride (solid) - (to be made up to required concentrations) * pH 7.2 buffer solution * Iodine reagent stock solution Preliminary Method 2cm3 of the 1% starch solution was measured out in a test tube using a graduated pipette (10ml).

  1. An Investigation Into the Effect of Substrate Concentration On the Rate of Enzyme Activity.

    The discs of filter paper were then pushed to the bottom of the test tubes using forceps. The time taken for each of the discs to travel from the bottom of the test tube to the surface of the hydrogen peroxide was recorded onto the results table.

  2. How the concentration of amylase effects the digestion of the starch.

    My rate of reaction graph shows the time it had taken for all the starch molecules to be broken down using the formula... Rate of reaction = Where... t = time taken for complete breakdown, Looking at my rate of reaction graph I can see that it is accurate as

  1. The Effect of Substrate Concentration on the Rate of Reaction with Amylase

    specific to starch within the solution. As a result the rate of reaction will be greatly enhanced, and so the products of this enzyme-catalysed reaction will be in a higher concentration, after a fixed time. This factor must be kept constant to ensure reliable results.

  2. The effect of Copper Sulphate concentration on Catalase activity on Hydrogen Peroxide.

    As I had mentioned in my prediction, this is due to the presence of copper ions, which are responsible for displacing the Haem group located in the centre of the porphyrin ring, and breaking the disulphide bonds by combining with the thiol groups and altering the structure of the enzyme' and consequently of the active site's present on its surface.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work