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The effect temperature has on the activity of Amylase

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Introduction

Carol Bhaskar Biology coursework - the effect temperature has on the activity of Amylase Aim * To find out how a temperature change affects the efficiency of amylase in digesting starch. Planning Enzymes exist in all living things. They are composed of polymers of amino acids and are produced in living cells. Each cell contains several hundred enzymes, which catalyse a vast number of chemical reactions. Enzymes are known as biological catalysts (a substance which accelerates a reaction without being consumed in the process) as they dramatically increase the rate at which reactions occur within living organisms. Enzymes catalysis saves the need for an increase in temperature in order to speed up reactions within living things - such an increase in temperature would be lethal to the organism. It is these enzymes, which control the metabolic reactions in our human bodies. Amylase is an enzyme; it is present in our saliva and pancreatic juice. Amylase speeds up the break down of long chains of starch molecule into smaller chains of maltose. Enzyme molecules have an extremely exact shape including a dented part called the active site. This is exactly the right size and shape for the substrate to fit into (in the case of amylase this is starch), it is the place where the substrate binds and the reaction takes place. ...read more.

Middle

I predict that if the temperature is doubled, so will the activity of the amylase - the rate of reaction will double. This is because twice as much heat given to the reactant means that the particles will have twice as much energy. Results Temperature Time Colour Room temperature (24?C) 0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 3:30 4:00 Blue/Black Dark brown/black Dark Brown Brown Lighter brown Slightly lighter brown Light brown Orange/ brown Orange/ brown (STOPPED - same colour as iodine) Temperature (?C) Time (minutes/seconds) Colour 30?C 0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 Blue/black Dark brown/black Dark Brown Brown Light brown Orange brown Orange brown Temperature (?C) Time (minutes/seconds) Colour 40?C 0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 3:30 4:00 4:30 5:00 5:30 6:00 6:30 7:00 7:30 8:00 8:30 9:00 9:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 Blue/black Blue/black/brown Blue/black/brown Black-brown Black-brown Dark brown Dark brown Slightly lighter Medium brown Medium brown Brown Brown Light brown Darker brown Medium brown Lighter brown Light brown Light brown Light brown Slightly lighter brown Very light brown Orange brown Paler orange brown Iodine orange brown This result appeared to be very anomalous so we repeated this temperature; the results are shown in the next table. 0.001 Temperature (?C) Time (minutes/seconds) Colour 40?C 0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 Blue/black Dark Brown Medium Brown Lighter brown Light brown Orange brown Temperature (?C) ...read more.

Conclusion

Another error was purely human, there is no guarantee that our measurements were 100% accurate. A more accurate measuring cylinder and thermometer could have been used. After closely studying my results one extremely anomalous result was apparent. It is marked on the graph (circled), and I could clearly tell it was anomalous because it did not lie near to or on the line of best fit as the rest of my results do. The reason for this, we suspect was no fault of our own. We surmise that this is due to a different concentration of amylase, during allocated time the concentration of amylase was perfected to 0.8%, but prior to this some confusion was present in this concentration and a different, lower concentration was presented to us, without our knowledge. If this concentration was lower it would result in the likelihood collisions between the starch molecules and the amylase molecules to decrease, thus significantly decreasing the rate of reaction. To remedy this we repeated the result with the correct concentration of amylase solution, this gave a far more accurate result (it fitted with the line of bet fit). The investigation could be extended by using a wider range of temperatures, this would give a wider range of results to analyse. Other factors, which affect the rate that enzymes operate at, could also be investigated. For example differing pHs could be looked into, or the concentration of either the amylase or the starch. ...read more.

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