• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The effect temperature has on the activity of Amylase

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Carol Bhaskar Biology coursework - the effect temperature has on the activity of Amylase Aim * To find out how a temperature change affects the efficiency of amylase in digesting starch. Planning Enzymes exist in all living things. They are composed of polymers of amino acids and are produced in living cells. Each cell contains several hundred enzymes, which catalyse a vast number of chemical reactions. Enzymes are known as biological catalysts (a substance which accelerates a reaction without being consumed in the process) as they dramatically increase the rate at which reactions occur within living organisms. Enzymes catalysis saves the need for an increase in temperature in order to speed up reactions within living things - such an increase in temperature would be lethal to the organism. It is these enzymes, which control the metabolic reactions in our human bodies. Amylase is an enzyme; it is present in our saliva and pancreatic juice. Amylase speeds up the break down of long chains of starch molecule into smaller chains of maltose. Enzyme molecules have an extremely exact shape including a dented part called the active site. This is exactly the right size and shape for the substrate to fit into (in the case of amylase this is starch), it is the place where the substrate binds and the reaction takes place. ...read more.

Middle

I predict that if the temperature is doubled, so will the activity of the amylase - the rate of reaction will double. This is because twice as much heat given to the reactant means that the particles will have twice as much energy. Results Temperature Time Colour Room temperature (24?C) 0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 3:30 4:00 Blue/Black Dark brown/black Dark Brown Brown Lighter brown Slightly lighter brown Light brown Orange/ brown Orange/ brown (STOPPED - same colour as iodine) Temperature (?C) Time (minutes/seconds) Colour 30?C 0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 Blue/black Dark brown/black Dark Brown Brown Light brown Orange brown Orange brown Temperature (?C) Time (minutes/seconds) Colour 40?C 0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 3:30 4:00 4:30 5:00 5:30 6:00 6:30 7:00 7:30 8:00 8:30 9:00 9:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 Blue/black Blue/black/brown Blue/black/brown Black-brown Black-brown Dark brown Dark brown Slightly lighter Medium brown Medium brown Brown Brown Light brown Darker brown Medium brown Lighter brown Light brown Light brown Light brown Slightly lighter brown Very light brown Orange brown Paler orange brown Iodine orange brown This result appeared to be very anomalous so we repeated this temperature; the results are shown in the next table. 0.001 Temperature (?C) Time (minutes/seconds) Colour 40?C 0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 Blue/black Dark Brown Medium Brown Lighter brown Light brown Orange brown Temperature (?C) ...read more.

Conclusion

Another error was purely human, there is no guarantee that our measurements were 100% accurate. A more accurate measuring cylinder and thermometer could have been used. After closely studying my results one extremely anomalous result was apparent. It is marked on the graph (circled), and I could clearly tell it was anomalous because it did not lie near to or on the line of best fit as the rest of my results do. The reason for this, we suspect was no fault of our own. We surmise that this is due to a different concentration of amylase, during allocated time the concentration of amylase was perfected to 0.8%, but prior to this some confusion was present in this concentration and a different, lower concentration was presented to us, without our knowledge. If this concentration was lower it would result in the likelihood collisions between the starch molecules and the amylase molecules to decrease, thus significantly decreasing the rate of reaction. To remedy this we repeated the result with the correct concentration of amylase solution, this gave a far more accurate result (it fitted with the line of bet fit). The investigation could be extended by using a wider range of temperatures, this would give a wider range of results to analyse. Other factors, which affect the rate that enzymes operate at, could also be investigated. For example differing pHs could be looked into, or the concentration of either the amylase or the starch. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    effect of concentration of copper sulphate on the action of amylase to break down ...

    4 star(s)

    Good timing, but better if have bigger range of results 6* 1.0 1.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 About 1000 Good timing 7* 0.1 1.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 About 200 Good timing and range of results can be obtained * Measured with a colorimeter What did I learn from the preliminary experiment?

  2. Marked by a teacher

    How does the pH affect the activity of amylase

    3 star(s)

    Table of results of the time it takes for there starch to be consumed pH Level pH 3 pH 4 pH 6 pH 8 pH10 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 1 + + + + + + + + +

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating the effect of temperature on the breakdown of starch by amylase.

    Throughout the experiment, safety precautions would taken to ensure that the experiment was conducted in a safe manner: safety goggles and a lab coat would be worn at all times. All parts of the experiment would be undertaken with care, to ensure that there was no spillage.

  2. An experiment to investigate the effect of chloride ion concentration on the activity of ...

    at the required concentration was mixed with the amylase. The sodium chloride solution was made up by measuring out 10 cm3 of pure water (distilled) and then adding the required mass of solid sodium chloride (measured using a balance accurate to 2d.p)

  1. The Effect of Starch Solution on the Activity of Amylase

    Also can be used to clean out dirty equipment. Iodine in Potassium Iodide Solution Used to measure the achromatic point of the different concentrations of the amylase. Also used to test if starch is still available in the amylase solution. White Tile Because of its colour it will be easier to see the colour changing whilst measuring the achromatic point.

  2. Enzymes - investigate the affect of amylase concentration on starch breakdown into glucose.

    At point 'c', I predict that the rate of reaction will increase quicker than proportional to the concentration of amylase. This is because at this point there might be two starch molecules to every amylase molecule, gradually becoming one starch molecule to one amylase molecule.

  1. A Level Biology revision notes

    down their conc. Gradient o NB: this is a passive process � no ATP required o Some channels use a gate to regulate the flow of ions o Selective permeability � not all molecules can pass through selective channels * Transport mechanism o Carrier protein binds to substrate (specific molecule)

  2. Investigating the Rate of Reaction of the Enzyme Amylase on starch

    As a result the reaction greatly slows down, as this enzyme is now out of use. The reason the enzyme changes shape can be explained by the reactivity series. Due to this change in structure the enzyme cannot function. As well as this, copper sulphate breaks disulphide bonds, which are present in enzymes.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work