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The Effectiveness of Different Solutions to Prevent or Treat Malaria

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Issue Report: The Effectiveness of Different Solutions to Prevent or Treat Malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease commonly known in tropical and subtropical regions such as Sub Saharan, Africa, Asia and America. It is a potentially fatal blood disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. There are four types of plasmodium parasite that can infect humans and these are: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariaecan. Malaria parasites are transmitted successively infecting two types of hosts: Female Anopheles mosquitos and humans. This is how the Malaria Life Cycle works: Bitten by a mosquito, during feeding, malaria parasites (sporozoites) leave the mosquito salivary gland and enter the human bloodstream. Then the malaria parasites enter the liver, infect the liver cells (hepatocytes) where they multiply into merozoites parasites. The liver cells eventually rupture and release more parasites in the blood. The parasites invade the red blood cells where they continue to multiply and develop to trophozoites and schizonts and rupture the cells. The blood stages cause the clinical symptoms of malaria. Some parasites enter the red blood cells and develop into male and female reproductive cells (termed gametocytes). The gametocytes are transferred to another mosquito when it feeds on the human. Then the phase of sexual reproduction continues in the mosquito. In the mosquito?s gut the male cell fertilizes the female cell to form a zygote. Then the zygote enlarges and migrates to the outer wall of the gut. There the parasites multiply several times and then released. Te parasites then migrate to the mosquito?s salivary gland. The parasites accumulate in the salivary glands, ready for transfer to another human. When the mosquito bites another human, the parasites leave the mosquito salivary gland and enter the human bloodstream. Symptoms: 1. Fever 2. Shivering 3. arthralgia (joint pain) 4. vomiting 5. anemia (caused by hemolysis) 6. Jaundice 7. hemoglobinuria 8. ...read more.


According to the table artemether-lumefantrine is highly effective in most parts of the world since it has less than 10% treatment failure, with an exception of Cambodia. The red line on 10% indicates a boundary and that the drug given should not exceed it, otherwise an appropriate measure must be taken by changing the partner drug of the artemisin combination therapy so that to not allow resistance increase to the drug. This graph highlights that from the point of intervention of Artemisin combination therapies(ACT) the malaria diagnosis has decreased giving evidence that these therapies work and are efficient in treating malaria. The table shows an increase in the use of ACT as years pass by and ACT is becoming more tolerable and more efficient since it is now the main form of treatment of malaria. But this table also shows a problem which is that less developed countries didn?t have an increase in the use of ACT and this is due to the drug?s high cost; High cost drugs can have devastating results in the economic life of a person or a family! Malaria can cause serious problems and one of this is the economic cost. As it is known malaria provides increasing mortality (the proportion of deaths to population). Malaria has a tendency to occur in the season where workers are most needed to collect their crops and therefore these workers are not able to receive their own income. ?Studies have shown that affected families clear only 40 % of land for crops compared to healthy families (WHO, 1998)? Other problems connected to this situation and increasing the problem of economic costs can be malnutrition or lack of medical care, and as I mentioned above, effective combination therapies and antimalarial drugs can be expensive and either people do not receive them or they pay a lot to be given to them. Such payments include payments for treatment, time and transport costs in connection to the treatment. ...read more.


These symptoms might not be revealed until months or even years after the exposure to the insecticides. Validity and Reliability of Sources: sources used in this report were very reliable and valid. Two of these are explained below: World Malaria Report 2011 Numerous people contributed to the production of this report. The information and data in the report was gathered from 106 malaria-endemic countries. It is reliable as it is very recent, published in 2011. This is shown in the Acknowledgement of the Report and it proves its validity as the information comes from various sources all around the world and the contribution of specialized people such as Dr. Melanie Renshaw (senior malaria advisor at UNICEF). Her interview speaks about the progress and the success of malaria control and this enhances the validity of WHO information. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dC2BGAnU_Q8). In addition a report was made with title ?EVALUATION OF WHO?s CONTRIBUTION TO ?3BY5? stating that ?Reviewing the process and the findings, the Steering Committee is satisfied that the challenges encountered during the course of the evaluation have not affected its overall integrity, balance or independence. We consider the report to be clear, largely factual and accurate, and grounded in evidence.? (http://www.who.int/hiv/topics/me/3by5evaluationreport.pdf) Medicines for Malaria Venture In my opinion both sources are valid since they both contribute actively in defeating malaria. Both sources have similar information and data about how to treat malaria, in what ways and through which drugs and this shows the reliability of the sources. Also this due to the fact that product development partnerships (PDPs) were created from a desire to generate new approaches to improve the global trouble of abandoned diseases by taking the expertise and knowledge of both the private and public sectors, and exploiting each of their strengths to find the most efficient and effective solutions. Rob Newman?s interview explains the importance of partnerships (http://www.mmv.org/newsroom/film/interview-dr-rob-newman-director-global-malaria-programme-world-health-organization). Both videos are published in 2011 therefore they are recent and proves the work done and data and information collected are valid! Word Count: 3. ...read more.

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This report contains a great deal of technical detail and appropriate A level biological terminology. A little more background information about the distribution of the disease, differences in mortality and how these are linked to particular Plasmodium species would be useful.
The issue of resistance is complex but it would, perhaps, have been useful to attempt a global overview of where resistance to particular drugs / drug combinations by particular Plasmodium species is greatest.

Marked by teacher Adam Roberts 20/08/2013

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