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The effects of smoking on the respiratory system.

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Introduction

The effects of smoking on the respiratory system. Medical evidence has proven that smoking is the main cause of many respiratory diseases. The following information will explain how the respiratory system works and how smoking could easily affect the different sectors. A key diagram has been included in the appendix, showing the main organs of the respiratory system. Figure 3. The nose and pharynx are the upper portions of the airway into the lungs. Air enters the airways by travelling through the nasal cavity. The nasal area is lined with a fine hair like filaments called cilia. Covering the cilia is a coating of mucus. This is a sticky substance, produced by the goblet cells to traps any dust particles and bacteria entering the nasal area. The cilia are responsible for clearing mucus that has trapped the dust particles. They are constantly beating back and forth with a wave-like motion, sweeping the bacteria and mucus towards the pharynx. Here it will by disposed off into the digestive system. The cilia are very sensitive structures. ...read more.

Middle

This cancer is also called laryngeal cancer and is most commonly found in people who smoke. It can develop in any region of the larynx, the glottis (where the vocal cords are), the supraglottis (the area above the cords), or the sub glottis (the area that connects the larynx to the trachea). The trachea splits into right and left main stem bronchi one entering each lung. The tubes are lined with pseudostratified ciliated epithelium. The cilia have the same job as in the nasal area but instead of forcing the mucus downwards through the pharynx, it forces it up towards the larynx. From there it can go down to the stomach. Cigarette smoking is the overwhelmingly most important cause of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. It causes two major kinds of damage to the lungs. The air sac damage we call emphysema and the airway damage we call chronic bronchitis. These two diseases usually arise together, but can occur on their own. Chronic bronchitis is the inflammation of the bronchial tubes. When irritants such as cigarette smoke have irritated the airways, the goblet cells respond by producing more mucus. ...read more.

Conclusion

Large cell carcinoma got its name because the cells look large and rounded. It is a term used for lung cancers that do not fit into other categories of epidermoid, adenocarcinoma or small cell. Large cell carcinoma is most often found in the smaller bronchi. Small cell lung cancer is also called Oat Cell lung cancer because the cancer cells are a distinctive oat shape. Cancer is a disease where cells grow out of control and begin to attack and destroy normal tissue. The reasons behind the development of cancer are damaged genes. The gene damage is often caused by environmental factors like smoking. Squamous cell cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. Researchers continue to study the causes of respiratory diseases and to search for ways to prevent them. It is clear from the information given that the best way to prevent any respiratory disorders or lung diseases is to quit (or never start) smoking. The earlier a person stops smoking the better. It is never too late to benefit from quitting. Not every case of lung cancer is caused by smoking, but people who do not smoke and are not exposed to second hand smoke are unlikely to develop cancer. Julie Barnard ...read more.

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