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The Endocrine System.

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Introduction

The Endocrine System. Part A Blood sugar or glucose as it is known has to be kept at a certain level. The blood sugar regulation is controlled by certain glands and hormones. The body requires volumes of glucose in order to create ATP. The amount of ATP demanded will fluctuate, and therefore the body regulates the availability of glucose to maximize its energy making potential. The Pancreas and the Liver are the organs involved in maintaining the blood sugar levels. The receptors of the pancreas are responsible for monitoring glucose levels in the blood, since it is important in every cell for respiration. Two types of cell release two different hormones from the pancreas, insulin and glucagon. These hormones target the liver, one or the other depending on the glucose concentration. Insulin and glucagons have opposite effects on liver and other tissues for controlling blood-glucose levels. This is shown in figure 1. Figure 1 In cases where glucose levels increase, less glucagon and more insulin is released by the pancreas and targets the liver. In cases where glucose levels decrease, less insulin and more glucagon is released by the pancreas and targets the liver. Major hormones circulate to all tissues. However a particular hormone only influences certain tissue cells. This is referred to as the target cell. To allow the target cell to respond to the particular hormone, it must have certain receptors on its plasma membrane or interior for the hormone to bind too. ...read more.

Middle

If left untreated, the insulin-dependent diabetic may also experience double vision, trembling, and disorientation, may perform strange actions, and may eventually lose consciousness. While experiencing any one of these symptoms, quick consumption of some sweets, some fizzy pop, or anything else that contains sugar will bring blood sugar levels back to normal. Recovery is more difficult for the diabetic whose insulin reaction is left untreated for a long period of time. An insulin reaction producing low blood sugar can be life threatening. Therefore, it is safer to "spill" small amounts of urine sugar when taking insulin. The second type of diabetes, often referred to as maturity-onset diabetes, is likely to occur in those with a family history of diabetes and is characterized by blurred vision, itching, unusual thirst, drowsiness, obesity, fatigue, skin infections, slow healing, and tingling or numbness in the feet. Onset of symptoms is usually later in life. Diet often controls this type and insulin is not usually required. Obesity is a major factor in type II diabetes. Other signs of diabetes include lingering flu-like symptoms, loss of hair on legs, increased facial hair, and small yellow bumps anywhere on the body and inflammation of the penile skin. Diabetes is associated with arteriosclerosis. Those who do not have an onset of diabetes until adulthood (type II diabetics) are not able to perceive sweet tastes. Obesity is common among type II diabetics (those who became diabetic during adulthood). ...read more.

Conclusion

die in infancy, and suffer from congenital defects than do non-diabetics. It is not uncommon for infants of diabetic mothers to be larger than normal at birth if maternal blood glucose level is elevated. In fact, this is sometimes a warning sign of diabetes in a woman who has not yet been diagnosed with the disorder. Strict attention to control of diabetes is essential during pregnancy to help reduce risks to both mother and baby. Diabetic emergencies which require prompt medical attention include hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis. Hypoglycemia, also called "insulin reaction" or "insulin shock" can occur if the blood sugar level of the person with diabetes falls to low. This result from too much insulin in the system caused by too large a dose of insulin, overly strenuous exercise, or failure to eat shortly after insulin is taken. Although each person may react differently, common symptoms of insulin reaction include trembling, sweating and nervousness. Some persons with diabetes may experience hunger, headache, nausea, drowsiness, or symptoms similar to intoxication. In severe cases of insulin shock, the person with diabetes may even become unconscious. A careful blend of correct amounts of insulin, exercise and food can usually prevent insulin reaction. When hypoglycemia does occur, however, most people with diabetes sense early warning signals and eat or drink something sweet to raise the amount of sugar in the blood. If a person is unconscious, an injection of glucose solution or the hormone glucagon (which stimulates the production of glucose), should be administered. ...read more.

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