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The endosymbiotic theory.

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September 25, 2003 Zo� Lines The endosymbiotic theory Endosymbiotic theory is the theory is prostates that chloroplast and mitochondria began as prokaryotes that were living symbiotically within an early eukaryotic cell. Chloroplasts convert energy from the sun to energy rich sugar molecules that can be converted to chemical energy in the form of ATP by chloroplasts. They trap light energy and use it to produce carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. They are cigar-shaped cells found in the photosynthesizing cells in the palisade layer. Mitochondria convert potential energy to chemical energy and produce ADP, which cells use as an energy source. They are cigar-shaped organelle found in all cells Its inner membrane has folds, called cristae, which surround a fluid called matrix, they are used in the respiration process. ...read more.


So therefore as the theory applies , these cells would have been more productive because of the endosymbiotic relationship that they had and multiplied more producing eukaryotic cells and eventually leading to all eukaryotic. Scientist believe that chloroplast probably evolved to that similar to mitochondria, however chloroplast probably were ingested by only some eukaryotic cells and were ingested after the first mitochondria. This is why almost all eukaryotic cells have mitochondria but only some have chloroplast. Eventually the mitochondria and the chloroplasts became so interdependent that they became organelles of the host cell. There is a lot of evidence to back up this theory. Mitochondria and chloroplast can arise only for preexisting mitochondria and chloroplast and cannot be formed in a cell that lacks them because nuclear genes encode only some of the proteins of which they are made. ...read more.


Also that they are surrounded by two or more membranes. The DNA sequence suggests that nuclear DNA contains genes that probably came from the chloroplast, which further more proves this theory. There are many scientific discoveries that support the endosymbiotic theory of evolution, for example mitochondria and chloroplast both contain DNA and RNA and ribosome's which are all similar to those of prokaryotic cells. Also mitochondria and chloroplast each have two membranes, the outer one probably is a product of membrane infolding by the host cell, but the inner one is probably the ancestral prokaryotes plasma membrane. This is supported by the fact that enzymes and other proteins in the inner membrane resemble their counterparts in prokaryotic cells. Other similarities between these organelles and prokaryotic cells include division by binary fission and DNA replication, transcription and translation. ...read more.

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