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The evolution of man

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Introduction

THE EVOLUTION OF MAN. Introduction Until recent times, it was commonly accepted that man had always been as we are now, we were created by God, in his image. The works and theories of Charles Darwin changed this, his book, The origin of species, sold out on the day it was published in 1859 and quickly had him labelled as the most dangerous man in England by those in the religious community. Darwin's Theory of Evolution is the widely held notion that all life is related and has descended from a common ancestor: the birds and the bananas, the fishes and the flowers -- all related. Darwin's general theory presumes the development of life from non-life and stresses a purely naturalistic (undirected) "descent with modification". That is, complex creatures evolve from more simplistic ancestors naturally over time. In a nutshell, as random genetic mutations occur within an organism's genetic code, the beneficial mutations are preserved because they aid survival -- a process known as "natural selection." These beneficial mutations are passed on to the next generation. ...read more.

Middle

(Human origins) Australopithecus Robustus. 2.2 -1.0 million years BCE. Southern Africa. A.Robustus was taller and heavier than both A.Afarensis and A.Africanus and had a large jaw and the sagittal crest - where the jaw muscles connect to the head, was very pronounced, this would?ve allowed A.Robustus to eat very tough foods. The molar teeth of A.Robustus are flatter. These factors combined imply a vegetarian diet, which may have been supplemented with termites. A.Robustus did not use tools, but it is believed it may have used animal bones to dig termites out of mounds. (Human evolution.com) Homo Habilis. 2.2 -1.6 million years ago Eastern/southern Africa. H.Habilis is one of the earliest members of the genus Homo, still retaining some ape like species such as a prognathic face and long arms, once again the cranium has increased in size, meaning a bigger brain. Like A.Robustus, H.habilis had a very strong jaw, enabling it to eat tough foods, but it is believed . H.habilis ate a very broad range of food. Animal bones with cut and percussion marks, commonly associated with large animal butchery have been found from this period. ...read more.

Conclusion

There is evidence that H.Neanderthalensis cremated their dead and marked graves with flowers or ceremonial offerings. It is believed that H.Neanderthalensis and H.Sapien had very little interaction for tens of thousands of years, until climate change forced H.Sapien into Europe, preventing H.Neanderthalensis from moving back into favoured territories and unwittingly partaking in the extinction of H.Neanderthalensis (Human Origins) Homo sapiens. 200,000 years BCE to present Evolved in Africa, now worldwide. Modern humans belong to the species H.Sapiens . They have a lighter bone structure than earlier humans, a much larger brain and less developed jaw. Like H.Erectus early H.Sapiens were hunter gatherers, ate a varied diet, lived in extended family groups and evolved skills to help them survive in unpredictable environments. They made and used tools, fished and used fire. H.Sapien was the most successful of all the hominid species, 90,000 years ago we began making specialised fishing tools and within the last 12,000 years human life as we now know it began to evolve, farming of livestock and crops began, permanent settlements began to appear and the human race was able to grow to such an extent that we now exist in every corner of the globe. ...read more.

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