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The formation of urine.

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The formation of urine. In humans, about 1 - 1.5 litres of urine are formed each day. The nephrons produce this urine in a continuous process. However, we can divide up this process to show how nephrons construct urine. i. The Glomerulus: The glomerulus resembles a twisted mass of tiny tubes through which blood passes. The kidney receives this blood from the first branch of the aorta, so the blood is under high pressure when it reaches the nephron. This pressure is maintained and enhanced because of the afferent arteriole,the blood vessel that takes blood to the glomerulus, is short and has a larger diameter than the longer efferent arteriole that takes blood away. In the glomerulus, water and relatively small molecules within the blood plasma, including essential ions, glucose and amino acids, are forced out of the blood along with urea and across into the capsules inner compartment. The glomerulus is located inside the Bowman's capsule. Below a diagram of the glomerulus ii. The Bowman's capsule: This is the first part of the kidney tubules (nephron), which is cup, shaped around the glomerulus to receive the blood plasma, including essential ions, glucose and amino acids. This filtrate collects in the inner capsule of the Bowman's capsule called the lumen. These collected filltrate then drain into the first renal tubule. This process is a type of ultra - filtration (filtration under pressure) iii. First renal tubule: This is the longest section of the nephron. It's walls are one cell thick and are full of mitochondria. The cell membrane in contact with the filtrate has a 'brush border'. ...read more.


Treatment for type 1 diabetes includes taking insulin shots or using an insulin pump, making wise food choices, exercising regularly, taking aspirin daily, and controlling blood pressure and cholesterol. Type 2 diabetes, formerly called adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes. People can develop type 2 diabetes at any age -- even during childhood. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas does not make enough insulin, and the fat, muscle, or liver cells do not use it properly. Being overweight can increase the chances of developing type 2 diabetes. Treatment includes using diabetes medicines, making wise food choices, exercising regularly, taking aspirin daily, and controlling blood pressure and cholesterol. Gestational Diabetes some women develop gestational diabetes during the late stages of pregnancy. Although this form of diabetes usually goes away after the baby is born, a woman who has had it is more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life. Gestational diabetes is caused by the hormones of pregnancy or a shortage of insulin. 3. Hypertension Hypertension is high blood pressure. Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of arteries as it flows through them. Arteries are the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the body's tissues. As blood flows through arteries it pushes against the inside of the artery walls. The more pressure the blood exerts on the artery walls, the higher the blood pressure will be. The size of small arteries also affects the blood pressure. When the muscular walls of arteries are relaxed, or dilated, the pressure of the blood flowing through them is lower than when the artery walls narrow, or constrict. ...read more.


Needles can be inserted in this graft. There is another form of dialysis called peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis works on the same principle as hemodialysis, but the blood is cleaned inside the body rather than through a machine. Your abdomen has a peritoneal cavity, lined by a thin membrane, called the peritoneum, which surrounds the intestines and other internal organs. The peritoneal cavity in the abdomen is filled with dialysis fluid that enters the body through a permanently implanted catheter. Excess water and wastes pass though the peritoneum into the dialysis fluid. Then, this fluid is drained from the body and discarded. The process is repeated between three and five times a day. In most cases, this treatment can be performed without assistance, at home or at work. A tube called a catheter, made of soft, non-irritating plastic, is inserted in your abdomen below and to one side of your navel, and stays there as long as you are using this type of dialysis. The catheter may be inserted at the bedside using local anesthetic, or in the operating room, depending on what is best for you. The dialysis fluid flows into, and is drained out of, the peritoneal cavity through this special tube. The insertion of the catheter may cause discomfort for a brief period, but peritoneal dialysis is not painful. However, care must be taken to avoid infection. Kidney diseases and defects all have to be diagnosed so that docters and nurses can give them the appropriate treatment for the problem. These can be tested for in a variety of diffent ways. There are different tests for different diseases below is a write up of a tests on different samples of urine for different diseases. ...read more.

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