• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The genetic code

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The genetic code I will discuss the genetic code, looking at the specific areas of transcription/translation, the codon/anticodon, mutation, sense/antisense, the non-overlapping codon and the intron. The genetic code is the base sequence of the DNA that has been copied to a base sequence in mRNA. "This sequence is the genetic code for a protein."1 This code is for a single amino acid, which is called a codon. The genetic code has two very important features. The first is a non-overlapping codon; this codon is a specific start codon, which ensures that the ribosome correctly 'read' the mRNA in a "unique way"1. This unique way is in sets of three, "64 triplets of nucleotides."3 For example: AUG AAU TCG CCU. The second feature is that the code is degenerate. This means some of the amino acids are coded for more than one codon. Transcription is the transfer of information from DNA to mRNA. ...read more.

Middle

This is the process of translation. Appropriate or different, specific tRNA carries corresponding amino acids."1 "The other "end" of the tRNA molecule has an "acceptor" site where the tRNA's specific amino acid will bind."4 Energy is needed to attach amino acids to the tRNA (ATP). So protein synthesis doesn't rely on the diffusion of amino acids, but does rely on transfer RNA (tRNA). Each tRNA molecule has three unpaired bases; these as a collective are called an 'anticodon'. The tRNA pairs with the mRNA the same way as before, matching with the codon in the ribosome. The tRNA bases pair with the mRNA bases A=U, C=G, G=C and U=A. The ribosome then removes the amino acids for the tRNA molecule and bonds it to the others. As the ribosome move along the mRNA three bases at a time, the ribosome will continue linking the amino acids brought there by the tRNA to form a protein molecule. ...read more.

Conclusion

Generally these differences do not make any impact on our health and are called polymorphism (poly means many; morphisms means forms). They are quite common. So while the genetic code may be slightly changed by having a polymorphism, the change has not significantly altered the gene message: the information is still understood by the cell. However, some changes to the genetic code in genes cause the message to be changed so that it is no longer understood by the cell: the gene is broken or faulty. Changes that make the genes faulty are called mutations. If the message to the cell comes from a faulty gene, the cell will not make the correct copy of the product, will make it in reduced amounts or will not make it at all. Faults in the genes may cause a problem with the development and functioning of different body systems or organs and result in a genetic disorder. Mutations that may be beneficial are that of immunity to a disease or a useful family trait. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into the Mitotic Nuclear Division of Allium Sativum Root Tip Cells, and ...

    5 star(s)

    the new organisms, whereas in more complex, multicellular organisms, individuals may be produced through one of the numerous forms of 'budding'; the body of which is created through mitotic nuclear division, and cytokinesis. The cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 phase, S phase and G2 phase (which are collectively known as Interphase)

  2. Marked by a teacher

    MENTAL HEALTH

    4 star(s)

    Alternatively, mental illness is a psychological or behavioural phenomenon that leads to disorder or disability that is not part of normal development. Mental illness can occur when the brain (or part of the brain) is not working well or is working in the wrong way.

  1. The Biology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Social Implications

    in order to make up whether or not a particular school is best for those children that have ASD. http://www.nas.org.uk/nas/jsp/polopoly What next? What happens next is very important. Important not just for the child with ASD, but also for the parents as it is those who care for children with

  2. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    For many years the public was concerned about the safety of laboratory research with recombinant organisms. As research has continued and no safety hazards have become evident, public concern has abated somewhat. William A. Check HEREDITY. The transmission of biological traits from one generation to the next is governed by the process of heredity.

  1. Structural Properties of mRNA and tRNA

    is added to the codon end of the molecule. This allows the mRNA to carry out its function. There are regions of DNA that are not used for translation, these regions are called introns. The regions of DNA that are translated into protein are known as exons.

  2. Investigating what effect varying the concentration of copper sulphate has on the enzyme Catalase ...

    To make these concentrations I will use the table above and a pipette to measure out each amount of either distilled water or copper (ii) sulphate depending on which concentration I am preparing. * 100 cm3 of 1 mole hydrogen peroxide.

  1. Chromosomes and DNA

    Plant reproduction Plants can reproduce asexually or sexually. Asexual reproduction Some plants develop new plantlets, such as runners (strawberries) or side branches (busy lizzy). In others, such as potatoes, storage organs develop underground which grow into new plants. This is called vegetative propagation and examples include tubers, bulbs and rhizomes.

  2. Genetics- Transcription and Translation

    The first step of translation is Initiation, which takes place in the P-site of the ribosome. The small and large ribosome sub-unit bind to the mRNA; the small sub-unit sits at the bottom and the large sub-unit which holds the A, P and E sites sit at the top of the mRNA strand.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work