• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Homeostatic Mechanisms

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Homeostatic mechanism P5. Homeostasis is a process in which the body maintains a constant environment internally (which includes our body temperature, glucose levels, PH levels and water levels), regardless of any changes that occur externally. ? Skin- regulates body temperature ? Hypothalamus- responds to any change in environment ? Liver and pancreas- regulates blood glucose and water levels within the body ? Kidneys- regulates water and salt levels Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback control, which is the process where a receptor such as nerve ending in the skin, detects change in the environment and informs the brain, which then instructs the effector such as a muscle or a gland to perform an action. Homeostasis is vital as it allows the enzymes within the body to function efficiently, as they work better when under a constant temperature. This is important because enzymes are essential for speeding up metabolic reactions that take place within the body which are required for the body cells to function correctly. Therefore, without homeostasis, the enzymes would not function which would be fatal. There are various parts of the body which are involved in homeostasis including; Homeostasis is responsible for the maintenance of many things that take place within the body, such as: Blood glucose levels Homeostasis regulates the body?s blood glucose level. When a person?s blood glucose level falls, the liver detects this and converts glycogen into glucose to restore the energy level in the body cells. Whereas when the blood glucose level is too high, the pancreas releases insulin which converts glucose into glycogen to store it for when its required. ...read more.

Middle

Also, when the cells produce ATP, it causes heat to be produced. In order to maintain homeostasis, the body has mechanisms to expel the heat, as well as sweating, vasodilation, etc. M2. During exercise the muscles are being used more strenuously, therefore they need more oxygen, nutrients and energy. Because of this, the blood pumps faster and harder to transport oxygen around the body via the arteries and veins, in order to circulate blood faster to the muscles and respiring tissues to provide enough oxygen for the cells in order to respire and make energy for muscle contraction, therefore giving the body the ability to carry out movement. Also, to increase the rate of the removal of waste gases such as CO2 and H2O which are left over from respiration. Our heart rate increases as the hypothalamus detects a change, which causes the medulla within the brain to instruct the adrenal glands to release the hormone adrenaline during exercise, to give the body a surge of power, as well as glucose being released into the bloodstream for additional energy for the fight or flight response. This release of adrenaline causes the S-A node to work faster, causing the sympathetic nerves to accelerate the heart. Also, because the body?s temperature increases during exercise, the thermo receptors within the skin detect a rise in body temperature and cause the hypothalamus to get the sympathetic nervous system working. As the heart rate increases, so does the breathing rate, in order to compensate for the production of carbon dioxide. ...read more.

Conclusion

Whereas having high blood sugar levels can cause Hyperglycaemia, which can damage blood vessels which supply blood to vital organs, an increased risk of heart disease and strokes, kidney disease, problems with, and also nerve problems in people who have diabetes, which can also be fatal if not treated in time, causing other life threatening complications such as Ketoacidosis, which occurs as a result of lack of insulin in the blood. If the body could not maintain the heart rate this could be dangerous because if it is too high and cannot be brought back down to normal, it could cause unnecessary strain on the body, using up more energy than required which the body could not keep up with and would result in death. Also, the heart beating too fast could cause decreased perfusion of oxygen to the vital organs which would be fatal if not treated but also possibly a heart attack if it continued to increase. If the heart rate was too low, this could cause the bodys oxygen levels used by your muscles to lower, resulting in the person becoming weak and even suffocate in severe cases . If the body?s breathing rate could not be maintained and the breathing rate was too high, this could result in hyperventilation which could cause a condition called alkalosis, resulting in less oxygen being released to tissue cell, causing the body to not have enough energy to function as efficiently as it normally would. If the persons breathing rate was too low this could result in hypoventilation which could be life threatening as the person could stop breathing which would result in death. , ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Role of the Respiratory and Circulatory Systems in the Provision of Oxygen and ...

    3 star(s)

    The upper and lower lobes of the left lung are separated by an oblique fissure. The lobes in the right lung are called the superior, middle and inferior lobes and are separated by interlobular fissures. Between the lungs and the chest wall is a liquid called pleural fluid which acts

  2. Heart Disease

    a loss in carbonic acid, the blood becomes more basic, or alkaline, which leads to spasm of blood vessels, almost certainly in the brain but also in the heart. ATHEROSCLEROSIS The coronary arteries may be clogged with atherosclerotic plaques, thus narrowing the diameter.

  1. Investigate the effect of bile salt concentration on the digestion of milk by the ...

    Use a different organic solvent in which the lipase is fully soluble in, such as oil. This will make the concentration of lipase more easily comparable and so it will remain constant and so the amount of lipase present in each experiment is the same.

  2. Describe the concept of homeostasis and the homeostatic mechanisms that regulate heart rate, breathing ...

    People with high average salt intake have a higher mean blood pressure. Water levels Controlling the level of water is linked to getting rid of nitrogenous waste. 1. Excess proteins (nitrogenous waste) are broken down into amino acids. 2. These then have the nitrogenous part removed as ammonia 3.

  1. Why the Body Needs Energy? Every living cell within the ...

    Reference: Class notes hand out 02 / 04 / 2008 The Cardiac Cycle Diastole is a period of ventricular relaxation Systole is a period contraction Normally systole is longer then a diastole Reference: Class notes hand out 02 / 04 / 2008 Rate of Heart Beat In the cardiac cycle

  2. High Blood Pressure

    When the muscle relaxes, the arteries dilate (become wider) and the blood pressure falls. Constricting and dilating the arteries is one way in which the body controls local blood pressure. Changing the pressure changes the flow rate, so more blood can be delivered to exercising muscles for example. [4][11] In the UK, about half of people over 65, and

  1. Investigating how prolonged exposure to its optimum temperature affects the respiration of yeast.

    It is also useful for measuring the amount of respiration that has taken place, since it is the most accurate piece of equipment available. 100 cm� Beaker 2 Used for containing the yeast and glucose while measuring the weight to be used in each individual experiment.

  2. The Pancreas is a large gland that forms part of the Endocrine System, but ...

    Together, these cells make up a structure called an acinus. See diagram "Diagram of the pancreas showing its various ducts and its relationship to the small intestine" which shows the acini. (Information from a handout called Human Nutrition.) The pancreas is said to be a highly lobulated gland that also

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work