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The Homeostatic Mechanisms

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Introduction

´╗┐Homeostatic mechanism P5. Homeostasis is a process in which the body maintains a constant environment internally (which includes our body temperature, glucose levels, PH levels and water levels), regardless of any changes that occur externally. ? Skin- regulates body temperature ? Hypothalamus- responds to any change in environment ? Liver and pancreas- regulates blood glucose and water levels within the body ? Kidneys- regulates water and salt levels Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback control, which is the process where a receptor such as nerve ending in the skin, detects change in the environment and informs the brain, which then instructs the effector such as a muscle or a gland to perform an action. Homeostasis is vital as it allows the enzymes within the body to function efficiently, as they work better when under a constant temperature. This is important because enzymes are essential for speeding up metabolic reactions that take place within the body which are required for the body cells to function correctly. Therefore, without homeostasis, the enzymes would not function which would be fatal. There are various parts of the body which are involved in homeostasis including; Homeostasis is responsible for the maintenance of many things that take place within the body, such as: Blood glucose levels Homeostasis regulates the body?s blood glucose level. When a person?s blood glucose level falls, the liver detects this and converts glycogen into glucose to restore the energy level in the body cells. Whereas when the blood glucose level is too high, the pancreas releases insulin which converts glucose into glycogen to store it for when its required. ...read more.

Middle

Also, when the cells produce ATP, it causes heat to be produced. In order to maintain homeostasis, the body has mechanisms to expel the heat, as well as sweating, vasodilation, etc. M2. During exercise the muscles are being used more strenuously, therefore they need more oxygen, nutrients and energy. Because of this, the blood pumps faster and harder to transport oxygen around the body via the arteries and veins, in order to circulate blood faster to the muscles and respiring tissues to provide enough oxygen for the cells in order to respire and make energy for muscle contraction, therefore giving the body the ability to carry out movement. Also, to increase the rate of the removal of waste gases such as CO2 and H2O which are left over from respiration. Our heart rate increases as the hypothalamus detects a change, which causes the medulla within the brain to instruct the adrenal glands to release the hormone adrenaline during exercise, to give the body a surge of power, as well as glucose being released into the bloodstream for additional energy for the fight or flight response. This release of adrenaline causes the S-A node to work faster, causing the sympathetic nerves to accelerate the heart. Also, because the body?s temperature increases during exercise, the thermo receptors within the skin detect a rise in body temperature and cause the hypothalamus to get the sympathetic nervous system working. As the heart rate increases, so does the breathing rate, in order to compensate for the production of carbon dioxide. ...read more.

Conclusion

Whereas having high blood sugar levels can cause Hyperglycaemia, which can damage blood vessels which supply blood to vital organs, an increased risk of heart disease and strokes, kidney disease, problems with, and also nerve problems in people who have diabetes, which can also be fatal if not treated in time, causing other life threatening complications such as Ketoacidosis, which occurs as a result of lack of insulin in the blood. If the body could not maintain the heart rate this could be dangerous because if it is too high and cannot be brought back down to normal, it could cause unnecessary strain on the body, using up more energy than required which the body could not keep up with and would result in death. Also, the heart beating too fast could cause decreased perfusion of oxygen to the vital organs which would be fatal if not treated but also possibly a heart attack if it continued to increase. If the heart rate was too low, this could cause the bodys oxygen levels used by your muscles to lower, resulting in the person becoming weak and even suffocate in severe cases . If the body?s breathing rate could not be maintained and the breathing rate was too high, this could result in hyperventilation which could cause a condition called alkalosis, resulting in less oxygen being released to tissue cell, causing the body to not have enough energy to function as efficiently as it normally would. If the persons breathing rate was too low this could result in hypoventilation which could be life threatening as the person could stop breathing which would result in death. , ...read more.

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