• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Human Genome project

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Human Genome project The Human Genome Project began in the mid - 1980s as an international scientific mission to map all the genetic material (i.e. genes) in human chromosomes and ultimately build the complete set of genetic information contained within molecules of deoxyribosenucleic acid (DNA) known as the genome. The project aims to improve the methods used to prevent and cure diseases because the keys to many of the worst illnesses of our time, like cancer and diabetes, can be found in genetic variations in DNA. The Human Genome Project is international, and has involved collaborations and contributions from researchers throughout the world, all of whom have donated their results freely to the public databases. It is the largest collaborative project ever attempted in biology, involving scientists in the USA, Australia, Japan, Germany, the UK, Italy, Russia, France, the Netherlands, Canada, Israel and elsewhere. The Human Genome Project aims to: * Determine the sequence of the four bases (adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine) ...read more.

Middle

Drug therapies - Prior to starting any drug treatment, a person's genetic profile might indicate which type of medication is most likely to succeed and which should be avoided because of a tendency to side effects due to genetics. For example, a person's response to medication commonly used to treat asthma is strongly influenced by a single base change in the gene that builds the drug's receptor. Once the base sequence of a gene is discovered it should be possible to find the protein it codes for. Once the 3D structure of the protein has been determined it could be possible to design drugs whose molecules would fit it perfectly and these drugs would be much more effective than any current ones and would possibly have fewer side effects. Diagnostic tests - These can often identify whether a person is a carrier of a faulty allele such as that which causes cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anaemia. ...read more.

Conclusion

Scientists know that genetic differences make some people more susceptible and others more resistant to such agents. Far more work must be done to determine the genetic basis of such variability. This knowledge will be used to try to understand the effects of low-level exposures to radiation and other energy-related agents, especially in terms of cancer risk. Although there could be great benefits in human health and disease, some people are not happy with the work being done on the Human Genome Project and say its unethical and that the money could be better spent on other things like improving the health of very poor people that probably won't benefit from the project and who will continue to be vulnerable to infectious diseases. Although tests for diseases such as cystic fibrosis are useful because they provide information on whether people are carries of the disease or not, the results generated from it may not be reliable. Also it could introduce risks of discrimination by employers, insurance companies and others if they discover whether or not someone has had a positive result for a particular faulty gene. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Human Genome Project

    5 star(s)

    They feel that God has made us the way we are and it is none of anybody else's business to tamper with it. Some religious groups, like Jehovah's Witnesses, object even to blood transfusion. Gene therapy, clearly, changes the patient's physiological structure and renders him/her different from the way God meant them to look like.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    MENTAL HEALTH

    4 star(s)

    eating rituals and eats small amounts of food, e.g., cuts food into tiny pieces or measures everything before eating into extremely small amounts - Becomes a secret eater - Becomes obsessive about exercising - Appears depressed much of the time - Begins to binge and purge Bulimia The individual: -

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Research Project - Could stems cells provide a cure for diabetes?

    4 star(s)

    Stem cells play a vital role in our bodies of growth and repair. They are unspecialised cells that have the ability to reproduce themselves and also differentiate into other cells, such as nerve cells, red blood cells or heart muscle cells.

  2. Edexcel Level 3 Extended Project - Should Embyonic Stem Cell Research be applied to ...

    The stem cells found in the umbilical cord are the precursors to the person's immune system. They can also generate themselves into white blood cells which are needed for fighting infections, red blood cells which are important for transporting oxygen around the body and platelets, which are cells in the blood which form clots (or scabs)

  1. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    After the brain-body ratio reached its modern proportions, relative brain size stabilized in all human populations and has remained the same ever since. It is clear that major behavioral changes are indicated by the archaeological record. For the first time, there is evidence for regional differentiation in the style of making stone tools.

  2. Cell Theory - Discuss the theory that living organisms are composed of cells.

    Recombination - occurs during meiosis and fertilization; promotes genetic variety - when crossing over has taken place - when resultant cell has genetic makeup distinct from parent cell 8.1.5 State Mendel's law of independent assortment. Law of Independent Assortment - Genes sort themselves randomly in the next generation through gametes

  1. Oncogenes are genes that cause cancer.

    The most compelling evidence for this conclusion came from the finding that the protein-encoding information of c-src is divided into several separate domains, called exons, by intervening regions known as introns. A split configuration of this kind is typical of animal-cell genes but not of the genes of retroviruses.

  2. inherited diseases - cystic fibrosis

    There are now many drugs that are in the market and many more that are in development. Treatments mainly depends on what organs are effected. The first new drug therapy in 30 years was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in December of 93'.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work