• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Human Genome Project

Extracts from this document...


The Human Genome Project "Today we are learning the language in which God created life . . . humankind is on the verge of gaining immense new power to heal. Genome science will have a real impact on all our lives, and even more on the lives of our children. It will revolutionise the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of most, if not all, human diseases." - Bill Clinton, June 2002. The Human Genome Project came into existence in the late 1980's as scientist from around the world aimed to map where every human gene is found on our chromosomes. The Project was a great success as scientists were successful, but now in order to extend the project, scientists are trying to work out what each gene codes for. This information would be vital as it could help ascertain how a particular gene might be damaged or how mutations on some genes can lead to illness or disorders. ...read more.


New fluorescent dyes allow separation of all four fragments in a single lane on the gel. Then the final base at the end of each fragment is identified (base-calling). This process recreates the original sequence of As, Ts, Cs, and Gs for each short piece generated in the first step. 4 The HGP will aid medical future developments greatly. Molecular Medicine will benefit from improved diagnosis of disease, earlier detection of genetic disease, Gene therapy and control systems for drugs and Pharmacogenomics or "custom drugs". Technology and resources promoted by the Human Genome Project are starting to have great impacts on biomedical research. Increasingly, the detailed genome maps are being used by researchers seeking genes associated with genetic conditions, including myotonic dystrophy, fragile X syndrome, neurofibromatosis types 1 and 2, inherited colon cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and familial breast cancer. Genome information can indicate the future likelihood of some diseases. For example, if the gene responsible for Huntington's disease is present, it is a near certainty that symptoms eventually will occur, although doctors cannot accurately when during a patient's lifetime the symptoms will begin to start showing. ...read more.


It is feared that genome data could be computerised and used in all aspects of life, from recruiting employees to creating sub-human races.7 It is even anticipated that in the future fantasies such as "Robocop" and other specially built, or with genome data, "genetically" designed police officers and soldiers will become reality. Proteomics is another branch of genomics and it is the large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions. To catalogue all human proteins and determine their functions and interactions presents a huge challenge for scientists. An international collaboration to achieve these goals is being led by the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO). The Genome data gathered from the HGP will aid society greatly in many ways including the development of cures for illnesses and the earlier detection of diseases. However, the data if misused could cause great divisons among societies and create prejudice and discrimination. 1 AS Level Biology, The Revision Guide, CGP, 2003 2 Human Genome Project, Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopaedia 3 The Wellcome Trust, http://www.wellcome.ac.uk 4 http://www.doegenomes.org 5 http://www.yourgenome.org 6 From Blueprint To You, NHGRI, April 2003 7 The Human Genome Project and Eugenics, Robert Lederman, 2000 ****************************** ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Human Genome Project

    5 star(s)

    Mapping the genes of these simpler organisms can contribute to understanding both how genes are structured and what the function of each gene is. The structure and function of each of these genes is easier to determine than those of human genes.

  2. The Biology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Social Implications

    For example, there is a 'Dyscovery' centre in Whitchurch, Cardiff, which offer Support for those with a wide range of disorders or syndromes and their families. This also included training for parents, professionals and the general public. (NAS. Online, 2006).

  1. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    There, it directs the assembly of amino acids, the "building blocks" of proteins (see Protein). The nucleotide code of messenger RNA reflects that of its parental DNA. Nongenetic Factors Initially, the nature of a cell is determined by its DNA code.

  2. The Human Genome Project

    One of the biggest problems with the project was the need to find an appropriate method to sequence the human genome. It is estimated that 95% of the human genome is junk, and do not code for polypeptides - these are called introns.

  1. GCSE Biology Revision

    -stores glucose as glycogen, also stores minerals Iron, Copper and Potassium as well as vitamins A, B and D. -breaks down excess Amino Acids to the Urea which are then excreted. -Detoxifies some poisons (alcohol) -Makes bile (greenish alkaline liquid, not an enzyme)

  2. The Human Genome project

    In places like the Mediterranean tests like these have shown a decrease in the numbers of children born suffering from inherited diseases such as thalassaemia, a blood disorder common in the Mediterranean. Some genes can be identified in younger patients to work out diseases that will develop in latter life such as Alzheimers disease, ovarian cancer and breast cancer.

  1. Human Genome Project. The work on interpretation of genome data is still in its ...

    These would make earlier treatment of many diseases possible. Those gene test are beneficial to humankind.For example, preimplantation genetic diagnosis(Screening Embryos for Disease), carrier screening(identifying unaffected individuals who carry one copy of a gene for a disease that requires two copies for the disease to be expressed), presymptomatic testing for

  2. Human Genome Paper

    Construction of complete physical maps of the DNA of certain model organisms and beginning the construction of physical maps of human chromosomes; 3. Development of new technology to increase the efficiency and accuracy, and lower the cost, of physical mapping and of DNA sequencing.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work