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The human genome project notes

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Introduction

The human genome project notes The Basics: * Fred Sanger first developed a technique for DNA sequencing process in 1977. * This process involved DNA being used as a template for DNA fragments. * The Segments were separated using gel electrophoresis, and are different in size by only 1 base. * Identifying this base at the end of each fragment allowed sequencing to take place. * This allows us to work out the entire sequence of bases and identify the location of genes along the DNA The Human Genome Project: � The human genome project is an organisation that was set up in 1986, who's aim is to sequence the genome for the entire human body. � It was originally a partnership between the US and UK was predicted to take 20 years to fully sequence the human genome. � In 1992, Japan and the rest of Europe joined the project and with sophisticated computerised techniques, the progress was more rapid. ...read more.

Middle

� There is now enough information about the human genome for biologists to analyse and identify the genes and their uses. � Some of this analysis was performed before the final sequence was produced as the projects policy was to publish any data immediately. � As a result, anyone could view the sequences and attempt to interpret them. � Research into the sequences holds many possibilities. � There is now research into the roles that genes play in diseases and possible treatments. � They can help us to overcome challenges in healthcare and agricultural methods (GM) and aid cleaning up of environmental pollution. The outcomes of the human genome project: � There are now believed to be 3,200,000,000 base pairs in a length of DNA. � This contains between 30,000 and 40,000 genes, each coding for a different cell within the body. 50% of the DNA is believed to be "junk" and serves no apparent purpose � The numbers are smaller for smaller organisms and larger for larger organisms. ...read more.

Conclusion

Before sequencing there were around 500 drug targets, after sequencing, doctors had confirmed that 18 more potential targets had been discovered. � There are slight variations in each persons genome. � This is believed to be the cause behind drugs working for some patients but not others. � Currently, finding the best drug for a patient is trial and error. It is hoped treat screening will allow the correct drug to be prescribed with little or no side effects. � It can also allow the development and implementation of preventative measures against the disease. � It can also be used to prevent children from being exposed to environmental factors that may cause allergies later in life. � Sequencing can allow us to look at evolution and the history of the structure of DNA. � A large proportion of DNA consists of repeat sequences, which are thought to have no purpose. These sequences replicate and insert new copies of themselves into different areas of the genome. They then reshape the genome creating entirely new genes. � By comparing this to DNA of other organisms, we can look at the evolutionary process. ...read more.

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