• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The human Genome Project was designed to identify all the approximate 20,000-25,000 genes in human in DNA, determine the seque

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

What is the Human Genome Project? The Human Genome Project was established to identify the genes that make us who we are. It is a worldwide research effort with the goal of analyzing the structure and to identify all the approximate 20,000-25,000 genes of human DNA and determining the location of the estimated 100,000 human genes. The DNA of a set of model organisms will be studied to provide the information necessary for understanding the functioning of the human genome and improve tools for data analysis. However, there also are many ethical and moral issues, which are often overlooked by scientific researchers. The following essay will be looking at the pros and cons of the human genome project. There are many possible benefits that can be achieved from the Human Genome project such as identifying genes responsible for different diseases and mental illnesses so then they can be prevented such as schizophrenia, breast cancer, or heart disease. There are many goals for the human genome project in the future; * Molecular medicine- This is to improve diagnosis of diseases, earlier detection of genetic diseases, rational drug design, along with gene therapy and control systems for drugs. ...read more.

Middle

Understanding genomics will help us understand human evolution and the common biology we share with all of life. Comparative genomics between humans and other organisms such as mice already has led to similar genes associated with diseases and traits. Further comparative studies will help determine the yet-unknown function of thousands of other genes. * DNA forensics (identification)- Identify potential suspects whose DNA may match evidence left at crime scenes, exonerate persons wrongly accused of crimes, identify crime and catastrophe victims, match organ donors with recipients in transplant programs and establish paternity and other family relationships. Any type of organism can be identified by examination of DNA sequences unique to that species. * Agriculture, livestock breeding, and bio processing- Understanding plant and animal genomes will allow us to create stronger, more disease-resistant plants and animals --reducing the costs of agriculture and providing consumers with more nutritious, pesticide-free foods. Already growers are using bioengineered seeds to grow insect- and drought-resistant crops that require little or no pesticide. Farmers have been able to increase outputs and reduce waste because their crops and herds are healthier. ...read more.

Conclusion

* Reproductive issues including sufficient informed consent for complex procedures, also the use of genetic information in reproductive decision making, and reproductive rights. * Clinical issues including the education of doctors and other health service providers, patients, and the general public in genetic capabilities, scientific limitations, and social risks; and implementation of standards and quality-control measures in testing procedures. * Uncertainties associated with gene tests for complex conditions (e.g., heart disease) linked to multiple genes and gene-environment interactions. * Health and environmental issues concerning genetically modified foods (GM) and microbes, for example Are GM foods and other products safe to humans and the environment * Commercialization of products including property rights (patents, copyrights, and trade secrets) and accessibility of data and materials. Also the question about who will own the genes. In conclusion, the Human Genome Project has many positive aspects about it such as its help in medicine to help find genes that can cause breast cancer or heart disease however at the same time its has its disadvantages such as its social and ethical issues. In my opinion it will help people in the long run so should be continued. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Human Genome Project

    5 star(s)

    in human biology and medicine and will help provide insights into the genetic basis of human disease and inherited disorders (e.g. Huntington's chorea, Down's syndrome and cystic fibrosis.) Genetic (inherited) characteristics are often responsible for diseases, such as the above examples.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    MENTAL HEALTH

    4 star(s)

    to suddenly stop taking there medications it could trigger another mood swing. Bipolar disorder can have numerous complications, starting with relationships and financial impact. People with bipolar disorder may experience the world as a loving and embracing place and then shut the world out to isolate themselves from the people around them.

  1. The Biology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Social Implications

    Graph from www.nas.org.uk/make_sense. The National Autistic Report can be downloaded in PDF file format from http://autism.org.uk. All information about the report was accessed from the above link on October 21st 2006. Funding Those who made comments about their own experiences suggest that support is not there where it is needed or if the support is there, then where is it?

  2. Gm foods and Gene therapy

    Of more concern would be where specific practices were authorized by a national Government with looser malicious intent or ethical standards, and were next traded internationally. It would be na�ve to assume that genetic abuse would not happen again. Currently, UK law on genetic engineering is largely knowledgeable by predominantly ethical stances which the church would praise.

  1. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    On Jan. 29, 1991, gene therapy was used for the first time to treat cancer, when two patients with advanced skin cancer were infused with their own white blood cells after the cells had been genetically altered to produce a tumor-killing protein.

  2. Oncogenes are genes that cause cancer.

    The reproduction of viruses mimics the processes by which cells grow and divide, but the simplicity of viruses makes them much easier than cells to study and understand. In cells DNA is transcribed into a strand of messenger RNA and the RNA is translated into protein.

  1. The benefits and criticisms of the human genome project

    There are many benefits to this research. These include: * Improved diagnosis of disease * Able to detect genetic predispositions to disease * Drugs created based on molecular information * Gene therapy and control systems used as drugs * "Custom drugs" based on individual genetic profiles designed * Detect and treat pathogens (disease-causing microbes)

  2. The Human Genome Project: The Debate

    later in life, such as Alzheimer's disease, breast cancer and ovarian cancer. These diseases are multifactorial in that both the genetic make up of a person can cause it, alongside the environmental factors which can also contribute. Genetic testing can identify people at greater risk and then health authorities can target these people- giving regular screening, advice and counselling.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work