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The Hydrolysis of Urea by Urease

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Introduction

The Hydrolysis of Urea by Urease Aim: To show Introduction: In this experiment yeast will be used as the enzyme. Various types of sugars will be used as the substrate. In this experiment the yeast will anaerobicly respire. When yeast anaerobicly respires it will breakdown the glucose into ethanol, energy and carbon dioxide. The amount of carbon dioxide released the measurement of the rate of reaction. The control I am going to use is distilled water this will show that the enzyme yeast cannot break down just any substance, and that it must contain a specific bond. This experiment will show whether or not an enzyme can break down similar substrate to the one it is specified for. Diagram of apparatus: Procedure: 10 drops of yeast was placed into five different fermentation tubes. Each also contained 10 drops of one of the following: * Distilled water * Glucose * Galactose * Fructose * Sorbose It was then filled up with distilled water. ...read more.

Middle

Could make my results more/less as it can easily be read wrong. By setting up the apparatus differently. For example we could use a measuring cylinder and a measuring tube instead. Or we could use a burette, as its measurements are more precise. 2. Fluid escaped from the small tube into the larger tube during the reaction (as the product of CO2 pushes it out). Also Liquid was spilt when the apparatus was set up. If these too come higher up the tube then the bottom of the gas given off is coved up and cannot be measured. This spoils the experiment, as a result cannot be obtained. Again by setting up the apparatus differently. With the reactants and gas given off are set outside each other using a delivery tube. Or we could try to be ore careful when measuring the substance out. ...read more.

Conclusion

When the yeast respires the reaction is: C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + energy This formulae suggests that it is the bon between the two carbons which is broken. Also supporting this is the fact that all of the sugar used had this kind of bond present. It is the elements in the molecule around the bond, which determines whether or not they can be fermentated and how well this can be done. As yeast has a specifically shaped active site like bonds can break. Distilled water was used as a control in this experiment. As no reaction took place in the distilled water it proves that yeast can only break down similar substances to the one it is designed for (Fructose). Another control, which could have been used, would be to boil the enzyme and denature it. When the experiment did not work with the boiled yeast it would prove that there was an enzyme present. Yes these two could be broken down as they have the same C-C bond. ` Maryanne Parker 1 ...read more.

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