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The ideas involved with viticulture and oenology.

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The ideas involved with viticulture and oenology There are two major types of wine, red wine and white wine. The major differences stem from the fermentation process, or rather the conditions this takes place under. But there are the vital steps in the production of each wine that are common. The first is rather obvious in that as wine is fundamentally produced from grapes, the grapes are picked off their vines, then stemmed and finally crushed. The skins of the grapes need to be broken in order to free the juice, as the yeast can't effectively penetrate the wall to get to the juice. ...read more.


The skins are kept so the yeast can extract some of the red pigments, thus creating the red colour. For white wine only the clear juice is fermented to prevent this. The yeast respires anaerobically by the process of fermentation, producing sugars and carbon dioxide. The alcohol is removed from the dead yeast (they poison themselves with their poisonous product and/or run out of food) and again the sulphur dioxide level is altered to prevent oxidation of the wine into its carboxylic acids, making it very sour. Red wines are now traditionally aged in wooden conditions, this gives the best quality wine, and as the wine critics say, this gives the flavour more complexity. ...read more.


As far as alcoholic content is concerned, the wines are normally around 12-14% alcohol to volume, the limit of concentration to which yeast can survive, as the alcohol is poisonous to them. But wines can vary in different ways, usually due to the type of grapes used, ie the differences in natural acidity and sweetness. Often, extra sugar is added after the fermentation process. Fortified wines, such as port and sherry, are simply wines with extra pure alcohol added (remembering the limit for yeast.) So there you have it, a brief summary of the wine making process. Oenology is a vast science, one that started, as primitive as it was, many many years ago and people are still pursuing this field. ...read more.

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