• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13

the immunity system

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Name Elaheh Mokhtari Issue HIV Word count 1,870 Target audience University students interested in HIV prevention . HIV and AIDS Many young people in Britain think that AIDS has gone away. Although there are treatment drugs for the disease but there is no cure yet. AIDS first surfaced in Africa in 1977-78. There are two types of HIV virus. HIV1 and HIV2. HIV1 is more common than HIV2. There are around 30.8 million adults and 2.5 million children infected with HIV. Around 11% of infections are babies, who acquire the virus from their mother during her pregnancy, Delivering or breast milk. 10% are due to drug infections, 5-10% is from sex between men and 5-10% is from health care setting. Around 2/3 of new infections are due to sex between men and women. The immunity system The immune system has a very important role in all vertebrates' bodies. The immune system's job is to protect the body from infections. It does that by finding out which cell belongs to the body and which does not. The immunity system does this by looking for antigens. Antigens are little marks that we can count them as being little uniforms for cells. All the cells in our body have the same uniform whereas they all have different uniforms from our body cells. We can not point to one part of our body and say that is the immune system. ...read more.

Middle

The CD4 protein is a part of a helper T cell (Th1 and Th2). Thus HIV targets especially T-cell with special CD4 which is a specific receptor for HIV. However other cells can become infected by the HIV virus. During the first stages of infection a number of T-cells will be killed by the virus. Here the symptoms of an infection which is infecting the immune system such as fever, headache, and tender lymph nodes and generally feeling unwell will display. However the speed of infection stabilises once the antibodies have formed by B-cells. The HIV virus has not been destroyed but all the symptoms will disappear for months to even several years. Here the virus has been stabilised and it will continue to grow even at a much slower rate. The person who is infected by HIV becomes very weak. When a microbe enters the bloodstream the immune system sends T-cells to fight the microbe but as the T-cells are infected, they are weaker than normal T-cells so they can be killed very easily from a microbe attack or they start to divide to make more T-cells. So more infected T- cell will be produced. As time passes the amount of virus in the body will increase until it reaches a certain level. The number of T-cells will decrease. This makes the immune system totally useless. Table 1 shows the diseases that usually define the beginning of AIDS. ...read more.

Conclusion

One third of all babies who have been given birth by an untreated pregnant woman infected with HIV will infected. However if an infected pregnant woman takes drug AZT during her pregnancy she can significantly reduce the chances that her baby becomes infected. The pregnant woman also needs to deliver her baby by caesarean section (an operation to deliver a baby through its mothers abdominal wall) to reduce the chances of baby being infected to a rate of 1 percent. NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infections Diseases) in Uganda found a very effective and safe drug which is more affordable. The drug is called antiretroviral drug nevirapine/ NVP. A HIV infected woman needs to take a single oral dose of NVP and her baby within 3 days of birth needs to take one to reduce the transmission rate of HIV to half percent compared with AZT. Transmission through blood HIV is also transmitted by sharing equipment during intravenous drug abuse and by blood products. Sharing needles, syringes, drugs and other drug equipments can put drug users at a high risk of becoming infected with HIV even if syringes and needles are sterile. HIV can also be transmitted by blood products. Blood screening is now carried out in all developed countries before any blood has been used in surgeries. Blood screening reduces the risk of HIV being transmitted through blood to less than 1 in 500000 pin. HIV can be transmitted by tattooing, skin piercing and cutting. Health care workers (lab technicians, cleaners) are also at risk for becoming infected with HIV during clinical or surgical procedures. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into the Mitotic Nuclear Division of Allium Sativum Root Tip Cells, and ...

    5 star(s)

    Division Prophase 21 42 Metaphase 7 14 Anaphase 7 14 Telophase 15 30 Statistical Analysis of Results The Null Hypothesis In order to demonstrate that the expected results and the experimental, observed results are concurrent to an appropriate degree, it is necessary to conduct some form of statistical analysis.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    MENTAL HEALTH

    4 star(s)

    'highs'; A physician may also make a mistake in diagnosis by attributing symptoms to depression, schizophrenia, a brain tumour, stroke, substance abuse, poor school performance or trouble in the workplace. People with bipolar disorder often describe severe 'mood shifts' that go from extreme energy to deep despair within a very short period of time.

  1. Peer reviewed

    Issue report: 'Smart' Drugs

    3 star(s)

    This would only serve to increase the difference between the countries as the smarter would end up richer and being better off. It is quite evident that if it were left uncheck then pharmaceutical businesses would charge premiums for these drugs.

  2. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    for energy production, active transport of materials across mem- branes, metabolic cycles essential for life, and many molecule-building activities (see Biophysics; Enzymes). Enzymes can be easily assembled on membranes. This feature pays enormous dividends to a cell because its vital biochemical reactions are facilitated by these important proteins.

  1. Defense in the blood

    Then, citing a paper by Bugge et al. (Bugge et al. 1996) entitled "Loss of fibrinogen rescues mice from the pleiotropic effects of plasminogen deficiency," he commented: Recently the gene for plaminogen [sic] was knocked out of mice, and, predictably, those mice had thrombotic complications because fibrin clots could not be cleared away.

  2. Free essay

    Genetic Screening

    By taking a blood test or samples of tissues a change on chromosomes or changes in DNA can be seen. People from ethnic minorities can be offered the test as they will have higher than normal chances of contracting certain conditions.

  1. HIV & AIDS

    This stage is called the chronic symptomatic disease. A very noticeable symptom is a thrush, which "is a yeast infection of the mouth..."(Kelly 532). Also at this stage there can be infections of the skin and also feelings of fatigue, weight loss, diarrhea, etc. The actual period of the HIV virus really varies from person to person.

  2. Management style, culture & organizational structure.

    This is the most efficient method of delivering genes to bacterial cells. * Viruses. The vector is first incorporated into a virus, which is then used to infect cells, carrying the foreign gene along with its own genetic material. Since viruses rely on getting their DNA into host cells for

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work