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The Importance of Being The Right Size.

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Introduction

The Importance of Being The Right Size 'The higher organisms are not larger than the lower because they are more complicated. They are more complicated because they are larger.' Hyung-woo (Shane) Cho L6GW Most people will be most likely to believe that the higher organisms, such as, animals, are larger because they are more complicated. However, actually, the higher organisms are complicated because they are larger. In other words, they have to be complicated in order to be large. Then why do they have to be complicated? And why do they want to get bigger? Simply, the higher organisms are more complicated because they need more organisms and support from their body itself, to keep their large sized body. All the living things have their own features to adapt their living habitats. Complicated mechanisms and large sized body are included in these features as well. The feature that is linked with the size of a living organism is surface area and the gas exchange. To get the energy to continue their lives organisms need to do respiration. Gaseous exchange is necessary for this, for respiration oxygen is taken into their body, and carbon dioxide are released out to the atmosphere. ...read more.

Middle

A thin, flat shape, such as that of the leaves of plants; the fronds of seaweed; or the body of a flatworm, have a large surface area-to-volume ratio and therefore their gas exchange is potentially extremely efficient. Flat shape also increases the surface area, the protozoan such as flatworm has a flat shape so that all the cells will be exposed and get enough oxygen. Tube shape also increases surface area as well, which helps to increase the rate of gas diffusion. This is why organisms like earthworms are able to respire through their skins. Shape 1 x 1 x 1 2 x 2 x 2 20 x 1 x 0.5 (flat, eg leave) 40 x 0.5 x 0.5 (tube shaped, eg earthworm) Surface Area 6 cm� 24 cm� 61 cm� 80.5 cm� Volume 1 cm� 8 cm� 10 cm� 10 cm� SA : Vol. 6 : 1 3 : 1 6.1 : 1 8.05 : 1 Many larger organisms have specialized sites of exchange, as they want to satisfy the demand of oxygen. The lung specialized organ for animals such as human. ...read more.

Conclusion

The higher organisms can avoid being eaten, eat more things, move longer distances to new food sources or more favourable environment, and reduce heat loss, if they have larger body. Larger body is suitable for keeping temperature, because if they have small body, it will have more surface area that will cause more heat loss from the surface. Small organisms such as amoeba does not need organs such as lungs because it is very small, therefore it has larger surface area compared to its volume, so that it can respire through its surface. Organisms such as leaves of a plant, flatworm, and earthworm have flat or tube shape, which is also a way to increase the surface area to allow more diffusion of gas. Bigger organisms get more complicated because they need more organs and mechanisms to support their body. They need much amount of gas exchange, and because their surface area is less compared to their volume, they need specialized sites for exchange, e.g. lungs and roots. Higher organisms also have good transport system to produce good diffusion gradient for allowing more gas exchange. Also, some organisms which are very heavy, have got much thicker legs to enable themselves to support their body. ...read more.

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