• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12

The Importance of Functional Groups and Isomerism in Organic Molecules

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Importance of Functional Groups and Isomerism in Organic Molecules Samiya Najib Mr. Nwosu Introduction Throughout this report, there will be a list of functional groups for six chosen compounds which are ethanol, propanone, ethyl ethanoate, propene, 4-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid and 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid. The displayed formulae will be shown for each of these compounds and how usage of these compounds related to the way they are structured. Also the chosen compounds will be linked to particular isomers and their industrial and commercial importance. Ethanol The molecular formula for ethanol: CH3CH2OH The functional group of ethanol: Alcohol, this is because ethanol has a hydroxyl group -OH, which indicates it is an alcohol. The displayed formulae for ethanol The uses for ethanol Ethanol is usually found as a colourless liquid, its structure enables it to perform specific and important tasks. Many of them are listed below: * As a solvent in the production of varnishes and perfumes * A preservative for biological specimen, for example estuarine macrobenthos * For the preparation of flavourings and essences * In many drugs and medicine, such as sleeping pills * A disinfectant * In colouring and staining * As a fuel, mainly ...read more.

Middle

The molecular formula for Propanal: CH3CH2CHO The functional group of Propanal: Aldehyde, this is because propanal consists of the carbonyl group The displayed formulae for Propanal The uses for Propanal Propanal is a colourless liquid with an irritating fruity odour. Propanal is used in some chemical bonding in order to perform certain tasks, such as: * Originates trimethylolethene, this is used to produce alkyd resins. * Condensation with tert-butylamine gives it a 3-carbon building block used in organic synthesis Ethyl Ethanoate The molecular formula for ethyl ethanoate: C4H8O2 The functional group of ethyl ethanoate: Ester, this is due to there being an alkyl group in its structure. The displayed formulae for ethyl ethanoate: The uses for ethyl ethanoate: Ethyl ethanoate is a colourless mixture formed by mixing alcohol with ethanoic acid. Its detailed structure makes it a useful substance in many ways; some are as follows: * Nail growth stimulator * Perfumes * Flavouring * Coating formulations such as epoxies, urethanes, cellulosics and acrylics * Aroma enhancers * Printing inks * Artificial essences Isomer of ethyl ethanoate Name of isomer: 3-hydroxybutanone, also called acetoin or acetyl methyl carbinol Type of isomerism: Functional group isomerism, this is because the functional group has changed from being ester to carboxylic acid. ...read more.

Conclusion

Isomer of 4-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid Name of isomer: 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid/anthranilic acid Type of isomerism: Position isomerism, this is because the position of the amino group changed. The molecular formula for 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid: NH2COOH The functional group of 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid: Carboxylic Acid, this is because 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid contains a carboxyl group. The displayed formulae for 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid The uses for 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid * Vitamin L * Production of dyes * Production of pigments * Production of saccharin * Preparing perfumes * Imitates jasmine and orange 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic Acid The molecular formula for 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: CH3C6H4COOH The functional group of 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: Carboxylic acid, this is because 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid consists of a carboxyl group. The displayed formulae for 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: The uses for 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid * Involved in some industrial processes for the oxidation of p-xylene to terephthalic acid, these are used in the manufacture of PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) which is used in food and liquid packaging. Isomer of 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid Name of isomer: 2-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid Type of isomerism: Position isomerism, this is because the position of the methyl group changed. The molecular formula for 2-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: CH3C6H4COOH The functional group of 2-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: Carboxylic acid, this is because 2-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid consists of a carboxyl group. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Reactions of aldehydes and ketones. The purpose of this experiment is to compare ...

    5 star(s)

    Discussion: Precautions: Propanone and ethanal are flammable. So, these liquids must be kept away from direct flame. Flammable Ketones and aldehydes Ketones are versatile compounds which can be converted to a number of useful functional groups through reduction, nucleophilic addition or condensation reactions. Ketones and aldehydes are important series in preparation of other compounds and they are

  2. The aim of this experiment is to produce Aspirin. This is an estrification in ...

    0.00cm3 0.00cm3 HCL used 9.50 cm3 8.50 cm3 8.50cm3 Concordant results 8.50cm3 8.50 cm3 Mass of aspirin used = 1.5161g Weight of container = 0.0000g Pure aspirin Volume cm3 Accurate 1 Accurate 2 Accurate 3 Final 8.60 cm3 8.45 cm3 8.40 cm3 Start 0.00cm3 0.00cm3 0.00cm3 HCL used 8.60 cm3

  1. Therapeutic Drugs and Medicines

    The spinal anesthetic will only last from one to three hours. Regional Anesthesia With regional anesthesia, a local anesthetic is injected close to or around a group of nerves to block the feeling to one part of your body such as your arm your hand or your foot.

  2. The preparation of cyclohexene from cyclohexanol

    Cyclohexene has an unpleasant odor, characteristic of volatile alkenes. Keep cyclohexene in the fume hood when using it. 3. Must dispose the organic wastes in the proper containers in the fume hood. 4. Cyclohexene and cyclohexanol are very flammable.

  1. Find the enthalpy change of combustion of a number of alcohol's' so that you ...

    heat absorbed by the water in joules, meaning it will improve the accuracy of the enthalpy change of combustion values. The thermometer may have contributed to the errors because its degree of accuracy was 0.50C. This may have affected my results by making a lower reading for the enthalpy change of combustion value.

  2. Comprehensive and Detailed Chemistry notes

    TRACE ELEMENTS Trace elements: Elememts reqired by living organisms in barely detectable amounts. -- Before AAS, detectecting concentrations depended on wet processes such as titration. -- These wet processes were not accurate enough to make a final judgement. -- AAS has an increases accuracy of measurements -- AAS is used

  1. Preparation of Propanone

    * Thermometer Experiment Procedure and Observations 1. Approximately 3 gram of potassium dichromate and 10cm3 of distilled water was added to a boiling tube and shook to dissolve the powder. The resulting solution is bright orange with a little un-dissolved powder.

  2. investigating the amount of ascorbic acid present in fruit

    Preparing the 10% Acetic Acid: 1. Make sure that the balance is set to 0.00g. 2. Get the weighing boat and weigh out 10.00g of solid acetic acid. 3. Measure 90cm3 of distilled water in a plastic 100cm3 measuring cylinder and making sure that it reaches the meniscus and the

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work