Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12

The Importance of Functional Groups and Isomerism in Organic Molecules

Extracts from this essay...

Introduction

The Importance of Functional Groups and Isomerism in Organic Molecules Samiya Najib Mr. Nwosu Introduction Throughout this report, there will be a list of functional groups for six chosen compounds which are ethanol, propanone, ethyl ethanoate, propene, 4-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid and 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid. The displayed formulae will be shown for each of these compounds and how usage of these compounds related to the way they are structured. Also the chosen compounds will be linked to particular isomers and their industrial and commercial importance. Ethanol The molecular formula for ethanol: CH3CH2OH The functional group of ethanol: Alcohol, this is because ethanol has a hydroxyl group -OH, which indicates it is an alcohol. The displayed formulae for ethanol The uses for ethanol Ethanol is usually found as a colourless liquid, its structure enables it to perform specific and important tasks. Many of them are listed below: * As a solvent in the production of varnishes and perfumes * A preservative for biological specimen, for example estuarine macrobenthos * For the preparation of flavourings and essences * In many drugs and medicine, such as sleeping pills * A disinfectant * In colouring and staining * As a fuel, mainly

Middle

The molecular formula for Propanal: CH3CH2CHO The functional group of Propanal: Aldehyde, this is because propanal consists of the carbonyl group The displayed formulae for Propanal The uses for Propanal Propanal is a colourless liquid with an irritating fruity odour. Propanal is used in some chemical bonding in order to perform certain tasks, such as: * Originates trimethylolethene, this is used to produce alkyd resins. * Condensation with tert-butylamine gives it a 3-carbon building block used in organic synthesis Ethyl Ethanoate The molecular formula for ethyl ethanoate: C4H8O2 The functional group of ethyl ethanoate: Ester, this is due to there being an alkyl group in its structure. The displayed formulae for ethyl ethanoate: The uses for ethyl ethanoate: Ethyl ethanoate is a colourless mixture formed by mixing alcohol with ethanoic acid. Its detailed structure makes it a useful substance in many ways; some are as follows: * Nail growth stimulator * Perfumes * Flavouring * Coating formulations such as epoxies, urethanes, cellulosics and acrylics * Aroma enhancers * Printing inks * Artificial essences Isomer of ethyl ethanoate Name of isomer: 3-hydroxybutanone, also called acetoin or acetyl methyl carbinol Type of isomerism: Functional group isomerism, this is because the functional group has changed from being ester to carboxylic acid.

Conclusion

Isomer of 4-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid Name of isomer: 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid/anthranilic acid Type of isomerism: Position isomerism, this is because the position of the amino group changed. The molecular formula for 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid: NH2COOH The functional group of 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid: Carboxylic Acid, this is because 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid contains a carboxyl group. The displayed formulae for 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid The uses for 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid * Vitamin L * Production of dyes * Production of pigments * Production of saccharin * Preparing perfumes * Imitates jasmine and orange 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic Acid The molecular formula for 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: CH3C6H4COOH The functional group of 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: Carboxylic acid, this is because 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid consists of a carboxyl group. The displayed formulae for 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: The uses for 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid * Involved in some industrial processes for the oxidation of p-xylene to terephthalic acid, these are used in the manufacture of PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) which is used in food and liquid packaging. Isomer of 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid Name of isomer: 2-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid Type of isomerism: Position isomerism, this is because the position of the methyl group changed. The molecular formula for 2-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: CH3C6H4COOH The functional group of 2-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: Carboxylic acid, this is because 2-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid consists of a carboxyl group.

The above preview is unformatted text

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • Over 150,000 essays available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Over 180,000 student essays
  • Every subject and level covered
  • Thousands of essays marked by teachers

Related AS and A Level Organic Chemistry

  1. The aim of this experiment is to produce Aspirin. This is an estrification in ...

    8.45 cm3 8.40 cm3 Concordant results 8.45 cm3 8.40 cm3 Mass of aspirin used = 1.5067g Weight of container = 0.0000g Preparation of Aspirin (12) Calculating the percentage yield % yield = actual yield x 100 Theoretical yield Mr of salicylic acid = C7H603 12 x 7 + 1 x

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Preparation of propanone from propan-2-ol

    5 star(s)

    Using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine This is used in our experiment. 2,4-DNP reacts with the carbonyl group for a condensation reaction with the elimination of a water molecule. Take propanone as an example, The product formed is a yellow colour precipitate, so we can easily distinguish the presence of C=O group.

  1. Comprehensive and Detailed Chemistry notes

    -- A second beam passes the samples 4. -- Emerging light passes through a monochromator -- The light then passes through a slit to select one wavelength band to be measured 5. The intensity of the selected beam is measured 6.

  2. investigating the amount of ascorbic acid present in fruit

    Keep repeating the titration method until you get 3 consecutive titres which are within 0.1 of each other.

  1. Analyzing the content of Vitamin C

    of moles of I2 added to react with vitamin C = 9.550761x10-4 mol No. of moles of S2O32- reacted by excess I2 = 0.064099M x 0.012175dm3 = 7.804061x10-4 mol From equation II, no. of moles of excess I2 = 7.804061x10-4 ÷ 2 mol = 3.902030 x 10-4 mol ? No.

  2. HYDROLYSIS OF ORGANIC HALOGEN COMPOUNDS

    volume of silver nitrate solution * Volume of ethanol * Specie of Halogen compound used * Time for precipitate to appear Safety Precautions Hazard Warning Labels Hazard Warning Precaution taken All organic halogen compounds have harmful vapours and can be toxic by absorption through the skin.

  1. Preparation of Propanone

    The resulting product is wet and may be treated with inert dehydrating agents (eg: anhydrous calcium chloride) and re-distillation for purification. The ketone could be tested with a melting point pointing point test after I has reacted with a hydrazine to form a hydrazone.

  2. Determination of the formula of Hydrated Iron (II) Sulphate crystals

    would have been dehydrated before the inside of the crystals and it is likely that the inner parts of some of the iron sulphate remained hydrated despite the outside of the substance appearing to be dehydrated (shown by the colour change from green to white).

  • Over 180,000 essays
    written by students
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to write
    your own great essays

Marked by a teacher

This essay has been marked by one of our great teachers. You can read the full teachers notes when you download the essay.

Peer reviewed

This essay has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review on the essay page.

Peer reviewed

This essay has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review under the essay preview on this page.