• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12

The Importance of Functional Groups and Isomerism in Organic Molecules

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Importance of Functional Groups and Isomerism in Organic Molecules Samiya Najib Mr. Nwosu Introduction Throughout this report, there will be a list of functional groups for six chosen compounds which are ethanol, propanone, ethyl ethanoate, propene, 4-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid and 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid. The displayed formulae will be shown for each of these compounds and how usage of these compounds related to the way they are structured. Also the chosen compounds will be linked to particular isomers and their industrial and commercial importance. Ethanol The molecular formula for ethanol: CH3CH2OH The functional group of ethanol: Alcohol, this is because ethanol has a hydroxyl group -OH, which indicates it is an alcohol. The displayed formulae for ethanol The uses for ethanol Ethanol is usually found as a colourless liquid, its structure enables it to perform specific and important tasks. Many of them are listed below: * As a solvent in the production of varnishes and perfumes * A preservative for biological specimen, for example estuarine macrobenthos * For the preparation of flavourings and essences * In many drugs and medicine, such as sleeping pills * A disinfectant * In colouring and staining * As a fuel, mainly ...read more.

Middle

The molecular formula for Propanal: CH3CH2CHO The functional group of Propanal: Aldehyde, this is because propanal consists of the carbonyl group The displayed formulae for Propanal The uses for Propanal Propanal is a colourless liquid with an irritating fruity odour. Propanal is used in some chemical bonding in order to perform certain tasks, such as: * Originates trimethylolethene, this is used to produce alkyd resins. * Condensation with tert-butylamine gives it a 3-carbon building block used in organic synthesis Ethyl Ethanoate The molecular formula for ethyl ethanoate: C4H8O2 The functional group of ethyl ethanoate: Ester, this is due to there being an alkyl group in its structure. The displayed formulae for ethyl ethanoate: The uses for ethyl ethanoate: Ethyl ethanoate is a colourless mixture formed by mixing alcohol with ethanoic acid. Its detailed structure makes it a useful substance in many ways; some are as follows: * Nail growth stimulator * Perfumes * Flavouring * Coating formulations such as epoxies, urethanes, cellulosics and acrylics * Aroma enhancers * Printing inks * Artificial essences Isomer of ethyl ethanoate Name of isomer: 3-hydroxybutanone, also called acetoin or acetyl methyl carbinol Type of isomerism: Functional group isomerism, this is because the functional group has changed from being ester to carboxylic acid. ...read more.

Conclusion

Isomer of 4-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid Name of isomer: 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid/anthranilic acid Type of isomerism: Position isomerism, this is because the position of the amino group changed. The molecular formula for 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid: NH2COOH The functional group of 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid: Carboxylic Acid, this is because 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid contains a carboxyl group. The displayed formulae for 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid The uses for 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid * Vitamin L * Production of dyes * Production of pigments * Production of saccharin * Preparing perfumes * Imitates jasmine and orange 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic Acid The molecular formula for 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: CH3C6H4COOH The functional group of 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: Carboxylic acid, this is because 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid consists of a carboxyl group. The displayed formulae for 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: The uses for 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid * Involved in some industrial processes for the oxidation of p-xylene to terephthalic acid, these are used in the manufacture of PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) which is used in food and liquid packaging. Isomer of 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid Name of isomer: 2-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid Type of isomerism: Position isomerism, this is because the position of the methyl group changed. The molecular formula for 2-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: CH3C6H4COOH The functional group of 2-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: Carboxylic acid, this is because 2-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid consists of a carboxyl group. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Reactions of aldehydes and ketones. The purpose of this experiment is to compare ...

    5 star(s)

    The reaction mechanism of this reaction is as follow: (Where Nuc represents the nucleophilic species which, in this case, is hydrogensulphite ion) The final product was an alcohol. For the 2nd step of the reaction, water is already sufficient to provide the H+ ion as methoxide ion is more basic

  2. The preparation of cyclohexene from cyclohexanol

    The temperature at which either has been distilled off. If the thermometer bulb is pushed too low of the position as indicated, it cannot register the temperature of the vapour coming out. - Addition reaction is that two substances react to form a single substance. A double or triple bond is usually found in one of the reactants.

  1. Determination of the formula of Hydrated Iron (II) Sulphate crystals

    This would help to ensure I did not add too much or too little KMnO4. Also, if a powdered form of iron (II) sulphate was used then the container used to dissolved all the iron sulphate with the water and acid would not need to be used.

  2. Find the enthalpy change of combustion of a number of alcohol's' so that you ...

    To improve this I could have used a more accurate thermometer, which is measured to the nearest O.10C and leave it in the water for 5 minutes to get a true initial temperature and to minimise error. This would improve the value for both the enthalpy change of combustion and

  1. The aim of this experiment is to produce Aspirin. This is an estrification in ...

    mol dm-3 * Sodium hydroxide 1.0 mol dm-3 * Volumetric flask (250 cm3) * Distilled water * Funnel * Pipette (25 cm3) * Analytical balance * White Tile * Goggles * Laboratory coat * Burette Stand * Analytical balance ( 4 d.p)

  2. Comprehensive and Detailed Chemistry notes

    Sensors transmit pressure data for monitoring. - Temperature monitoring: Temperature must remain in optimum range Sensors transmit temperature data for monitoring. - Catalyst activity monitoring: Particle size of catalyst must be monitered to ensure high surface area. - Product monitoring: The ammonia must be monitored after thereaction to ensure that it meets standards and must not contain impurities.

  1. investigating the amount of ascorbic acid present in fruit

    Gloves must be worn at all times whilst handling the NBS solution due to it being an irritant. 12. Fill up the 50cm3 burette with the NBS solution, making sure that there is no air bubbles and that the dip is accurately on the meniscus line. 13. Remove funnel.

  2. Preparation of Propanone

    The resulting product is wet and may be treated with inert dehydrating agents (eg: anhydrous calcium chloride) and re-distillation for purification. The ketone could be tested with a melting point pointing point test after I has reacted with a hydrazine to form a hydrazone.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work