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The Importance of Functional Groups and Isomerism in Organic Molecules

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Introduction

The Importance of Functional Groups and Isomerism in Organic Molecules Samiya Najib Mr. Nwosu Introduction Throughout this report, there will be a list of functional groups for six chosen compounds which are ethanol, propanone, ethyl ethanoate, propene, 4-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid and 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid. The displayed formulae will be shown for each of these compounds and how usage of these compounds related to the way they are structured. Also the chosen compounds will be linked to particular isomers and their industrial and commercial importance. Ethanol The molecular formula for ethanol: CH3CH2OH The functional group of ethanol: Alcohol, this is because ethanol has a hydroxyl group -OH, which indicates it is an alcohol. The displayed formulae for ethanol The uses for ethanol Ethanol is usually found as a colourless liquid, its structure enables it to perform specific and important tasks. Many of them are listed below: * As a solvent in the production of varnishes and perfumes * A preservative for biological specimen, for example estuarine macrobenthos * For the preparation of flavourings and essences * In many drugs and medicine, such as sleeping pills * A disinfectant * In colouring and staining * As a fuel, mainly

Middle

The molecular formula for Propanal: CH3CH2CHO The functional group of Propanal: Aldehyde, this is because propanal consists of the carbonyl group The displayed formulae for Propanal The uses for Propanal Propanal is a colourless liquid with an irritating fruity odour. Propanal is used in some chemical bonding in order to perform certain tasks, such as: * Originates trimethylolethene, this is used to produce alkyd resins. * Condensation with tert-butylamine gives it a 3-carbon building block used in organic synthesis Ethyl Ethanoate The molecular formula for ethyl ethanoate: C4H8O2 The functional group of ethyl ethanoate: Ester, this is due to there being an alkyl group in its structure. The displayed formulae for ethyl ethanoate: The uses for ethyl ethanoate: Ethyl ethanoate is a colourless mixture formed by mixing alcohol with ethanoic acid. Its detailed structure makes it a useful substance in many ways; some are as follows: * Nail growth stimulator * Perfumes * Flavouring * Coating formulations such as epoxies, urethanes, cellulosics and acrylics * Aroma enhancers * Printing inks * Artificial essences Isomer of ethyl ethanoate Name of isomer: 3-hydroxybutanone, also called acetoin or acetyl methyl carbinol Type of isomerism: Functional group isomerism, this is because the functional group has changed from being ester to carboxylic acid.

Conclusion

Isomer of 4-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid Name of isomer: 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid/anthranilic acid Type of isomerism: Position isomerism, this is because the position of the amino group changed. The molecular formula for 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid: NH2COOH The functional group of 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid: Carboxylic Acid, this is because 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid contains a carboxyl group. The displayed formulae for 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid The uses for 2-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid * Vitamin L * Production of dyes * Production of pigments * Production of saccharin * Preparing perfumes * Imitates jasmine and orange 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic Acid The molecular formula for 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: CH3C6H4COOH The functional group of 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: Carboxylic acid, this is because 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid consists of a carboxyl group. The displayed formulae for 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: The uses for 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid * Involved in some industrial processes for the oxidation of p-xylene to terephthalic acid, these are used in the manufacture of PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) which is used in food and liquid packaging. Isomer of 4-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid Name of isomer: 2-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid Type of isomerism: Position isomerism, this is because the position of the methyl group changed. The molecular formula for 2-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: CH3C6H4COOH The functional group of 2-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid: Carboxylic acid, this is because 2-methylbenzenecarboxylic acid consists of a carboxyl group.

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