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"The Physiology of Sports Injury".

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Christopher McMichael November 17, 2003 Sports Medicine Mr. Fowler Period 3 "The Physiology of Sports Injury" The beginning of a sports injury first starts with "The Inflammatory Process." The inflammatory process is when the body detects tissue damage in the body and reacts by swelling the area of injury. Swelling begins right after the injury is detected. The numerous symptoms of inflammation include: irritation, "swelling, pain, reddening of the skin, and an increase in the temperature of the area involved." The next phase of the inflammatory process is the acute inflammatory phase. The acute inflammatory phase discusses how tons of cells are destroyed by trauma and the blood flow is reduced to the injured area. ...read more.


to sustain themselves. This death of cells is known as "second hypoxic injury." Second hypoxic injury also causes cellular breakdown and the release of lysosomes, which are a powerful protein (enzyme) that speed up the breakdown of cells. There are three sets of chemicals that become active during the acute inflammatory phase; these chemicals are "degenerative enzymes, vasoactive substances, and chemotactic factors." Other cells then react to the breakdown of the cells through histamine, leukocytes, bradykinin, and prostaglandins. Histamine is then used to create vasodilation and increased vascular permeability. Then leukocytes are attracted to the injury through chemotaxis. After that, bradykinin creates vascular permeability and releases the prostaglandins. ...read more.


Tissue repairs begins by the movement of polymorph, monocytes, and histocytes to break down the cell debris which will make room for new tissue (scar tissue). Basically, after the initial injury, decreased blood flow occurs followed by an increase in blood flow. The increase in blood flow causes Hematoma, which causes clotting. The clotting then causes the death of cells, which cause the release of lysosomes. The lysosomes cause the cells to break down. Histamines, leukocytes, bradykinin, and prostaglandin then get rid of the damaged cells (Phagocytosis). Neutrophils and then macrophages come to help the process of the removal of the damaged cells. The resolution phase continues to get rid of the dead cells in order to make room for the new tissue to grow. ...read more.

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