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The Production of Vaccines using Genetic Engineering.

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Introduction

The Production of Vaccines using Genetic Engineering As the worlds population continues to rise annually, new technology becomes know to man! Technology is a never-ending process where newer and better things are being discovered. The area of technology that will be discussed here is biotechnology. Biotechnology is the harnessing by man of the ability of organisms to produce drugs, food or other useful products. Micro-organisms are the main ones involved in biotechnology, especially bacteria and fungi. More recently, genetic engineering or the altering of the genes, the building blocks which determine the make up of an organism, has been increasingly used in biotechnology. In the course of this essay, genetic engineering will be introduced together with vaccines. When they were first discovered and the development of the two combined. From this, ethical and politic issues will arise, where future possibilities will form personal opinions. Firstly vaccines, a vaccine is a modified preparation of a virus or bacteria that is no longer dangerous but can produce an immune response. It therefore gives immunity against infection with the actual disease. Vaccines can be administered by mouth or by a hypodermic syringe and are not effective immediately as it takes a time for the recipients' immune system to develop a memory for the modified virus or bacterium by producing specific antibodies.(1) ...read more.

Middle

(3) Then combining the two, genetic engineering and vaccines, genetically engineered vaccines were born. By the early 1990's, scientists had begun to study new approaches to the production of vaccines that differ in structure from traditional ones. The strategy involves genetic engineering, or recombinant DNA technology, which permits scientists to combine a segment of DNA from one organism with the gene(s) of a second organism. Scientists have demonstrated that these recombinant vaccines activate the immune systems of rodents and nonhuman primates, eliciting both anti-body type immunity and killer cell-type immunity against variety of disease-producing organisms. Researchers are currently conducting additional tests in animals to develop ways of enhancing the immune response before moving to the stage of clinical testing. DNA vaccines can be administered intranasally, injected intramuscularly, or delivered by gene gun, an instrument that propels tiny DNA-coated gold beads into the body's cell. Many diseases for which researchers are attempting to develop vaccines are extremely complex. Many diseases are still today, not fully understood and present an enormous challenge. New technologies resulting from scientific advancements in the area of molecular biology are aiding the development of a new generation of vaccines. ...read more.

Conclusion

Nature, they believe, must be "protected" against human intrusion, and we should learn to adapt ourselves to our environment rather than adapt the environment to our needs. From this philosophical perspective, genetic engineering is inherently evil, since it rests on the premise that man is morally entitled to reshape nature to serve his ends. This is the reason why environmentalists oppose it strongly. (6) In conclusion, since the first vaccine was found and used, over 200 years ago today, vaccines have brought under control many of the most devastating diseases in the world. The use of vaccines has led to eradication of naturally occurring smallpox around the world. Worldwide vaccination programs have been designed with targets of eliminating other life threatening diseases. Vaccines not only protect us humans, but also our pets and keep our food supply safe and safeguard our quality of life. The huge role of animal modelling and research in these achievements cannot be understated and undermined. As technology continues to improve all the time, modern science also continues to develop new and innovative vaccines to prevent the most challenging of diseases and to respond to the threat of bio-terrorism which is an increasing concern, animal research will continue to play a vital role. Genetic engineering now discovered will never be forgotten nor will it disappear. As a result this technology is unavoidable. ...read more.

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