• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The properties of transition metals

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐PRACTICAL 2: PROPERTIES OF THE TRANSITION METALS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS OBJECTIVES: 1. To determine general trends in reactivity of the transition metals and their compounds 2. To be able to predict the outcome of a great variety of chemical reactions based on these group trends. 3. To make a connection between periodic trends such as atomic radii, electronegativity, ionization energy and electron configuration and their effect on the chemistry and properties of the elements and their compounds. INTRODUCTION: The series of elements, that are formed by filling the 3d, 4d and 5d shells of electrons, comprise the d-block elements. They are often called as transition elements because their position in the periodic table is between s-block and p-block elements. Their properties are transitional between the highly reactive metallic elements of the s-block, which form ionic compounds and elements of p-block, which form covalent compounds. In s and p blocks, electrons add to the last shell, in d-block electrons are added to the penultimate shell. Typically, the transition elements have an incompletely filled d level. The zinc group has d10 configuration and compounds of these elements show some differences from other transition elements. The elements make up three complete rows of ten elements and an incomplete fourth row. The position of the incomplete fourth series is discussed along with the f-block elements. ...read more.


The d electrons are loosely bound, which contributes to the high electrical conductivity and malleability of the transition elements. The transition elements have low ionization energies. They exhibit a wide range of oxidation states or positively charged forms. The positive oxidation states allow transition elements to form many different ionic and partially ionic compounds. The formation of complexes causes the d orbital to split into two energy sublevels, which enables many of the complexes to absorb specific frequencies of light. Thus, the complexes form characteristic colored solutions and compounds. Complexation reactions sometimes enhance the relatively low solubility of some compounds. Common properties of transition metals:- Hardness, Density, Melting and Boiling Point 1. Transition metals have smaller atomic volumes than Group I and II metals because additional electrons are being progressively added to the inner atomic orbitals resulting in stronger attraction to the nucleus. 2. These atoms of smaller volume can pack together more closely resulting in higher densities and hardness. 3. Closer packing results in stronger bonding so more energy is required to melt or boil transition metals. Ionisation Energy and Chemical Reactivity 1. The smaller atomic radii of transition metals means the valence shell (outer-shell) electrons are more strongly attracted to the nucleus and therefore less easily removed resulting in higher first ionisation energies compared to Group I and II metals. ...read more.


5. Ferromagnetic compounds such as CrO2 and Fe3O4 also exist. CONCLUSION: The 38 elements in groups 3 through 12 of the periodic table are called "transition metals". As with all metals, the transition elements are both ductile and malleable, and conduct electricity and heat. The interesting thing about transition metals is that their valence electrons, or the electrons they use to combine with other elements, are present in more than one shell. This is the reason why they often exhibit several common oxidation states. There are three noteworthy elements in the transition metals family. These elements are iron, cobalt, and nickel, and they are the only elements known to produce a magnetic field. Transition metal generally shows: 1. higher densities 2. higher melting and boiling points 3. higher ionization energies 4. a range of oxidation states 5. colors in their compounds 6. the ability to form a wide range of coordination compounds 7. paramagnetism (ability to attract a magnetic field) 8. less chemical reactivity than Group I (Alkali) metals and Group II (Alkali Earth) metals POST LAB QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the physical properties of transition metals. Physical properties of transition metals are hard, dense and shiny. They are good conductors of heat and electricity. They are also malleable and ductile. 1. How do transition metals react with water? Transition metals react with water very slowly, if at all. 1. What properties do the compounds of transition metals have in common? The common properties, they form colored compounds. They form compounds that can have more than one formula. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Write an essay on electrode potentials.

    5 star(s)

    and the copper would act as the positive one, because copper has a lower tendency to give out electron than hydrogen. Consequently, a positive E? value would be found for the Cu / Cu2+ system. How are electrode potentials used??

  2. Peer reviewed

    The Development of the Periodic Table of the Elements

    4 star(s)

    many unknown elements is to be expected; the atomic weight of an element may sometimes be amended by a knowledge of its adjacent elements' atomic weights; certain properties of elements can be predicted from their atomic weights. The advantages of his version of the Periodic Table were that he predicted

  1. Alkaloids are the most diverse group of secondary metabolites and over 5000 compounds are ...

    Other compounds covered by Pelletier's definition also exist. Examples are the antibiotic cycloserine, mitomycin C, mushroom toxin muscimol and the purine alkaloids such as caffeine. There is another classification of the alkaloids according to the location of the nitrogen atom in certain structural features: 1.

  2. Investigating the Rate of the Reaction between Bromide and Bromate Ions in Acid Solution

    Pour the contents of beaker X into beaker Y and start the stop-watch 4. Mix the solutions by pouring the mixture back into beaker X and then back into beaker Y 5. When the pink colour has disappeared, stop the stop-watch and record the time in the results table, as shown below 6.

  1. Outline and examine some uses of different metals through history, including contemporary uses, as ...

    The advancement of technology paralleling these new ideas, also played a significant role. A classics example would be electricity. Electricity opened up doors for new and improved extraction processes and new ways of isolating elements (e.g. electrolysis), which enabled scientists like Davy to isolate sodium, potassium, calcium and strontium.

  2. Atomic Structure, Bonding and the Periodic Table. Revision questions.

    What type of bonding is present in potassium fluoride? Draw diagrams to show the electron arrangements of the atoms. Also draw a diagram to show how the atoms are arranged in 3D. Potassium fluoride is formed by ionic bonds.

  1. The Periodic Table.

    From looking at the periodic table is it very easy to conclude how many electrons the element contains in its outer shell, see how group 1 alkaline metals all have electrons, from looking at the group number it tells us how many electrons the elements have in its outer shell,

  2. Activity Series of Metals Lab

    This reaction will feel cold. Purpose: To verify that the Activity Series of Metals is valid and 100% accurate and ensure it is truthful about the ability an element has to react and replace another element due to its reactivity and order of the series.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work