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The purpose of this experiment is to examine the flame colour of selected s-block metal chlorides and the solubility of selected Group II metal sulphates and hydroxides.

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Introduction

1. Title Investigation of s-block elements 2. Aim The purpose of this experiment is to examine the flame colour of selected s-block metal chlorides and the solubility of selected Group II metal sulphates and hydroxides. 3. Results & Calculations Table 1 Group I Group II compound flame color compound flame color LiCl Deep red CaCl2 Brick - red NaCl Golden yellow SrCl2 Blood - red KCl Lilac BaCl2 Green Table 2 Cationic solution Anionic solution Mg(NO3)2(aq) Ca(NO3)2(aq) Sr(NO3)2(aq) Ba(NO3)2(aq) NaOH(aq) Trend Least soluble more soluble when compared with Mg(NO3)2 more soluble when compared with Ca(NO3)2 Most soluble Na2SO4 (aq) Trend Most soluble Less soluble when compared with Mg(NO3)2 Less soluble when compared with Ca(NO3)2 Least soluble 4. Discussion Flame colour: Most s - block elements give a characteristic flame colour in the flame test. ...read more.

Middle

These interactions compensate for the breaking of ionic bonds present in the ionic lattice. This can be considered from the point of view of energetics. The first process involves a release of energy when the ions are hydrated, that is , when new bonds are formed between the ions and water molecules. 5. Answers to Question 5.1 Account for the underlying principle of flame test. Since the outermost shell electrons of atoms of both Groups I and II elements are weakly held by the nucleus, the electrons are easily excited to higher energy levels upon heating. When these electrons return to their ground states, radiation is emitted. For many Groups I and II elements, the emitted radiation falls into the visible light region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Since the amount of energy of the emitted radiation is quantized, the flame colour is a characteristic property of the element. ...read more.

Conclusion

As a result, the H soln becomes less negative, and hence the solubility of the sulphates(VI) of Group II metals decreases down the group. For the hydroxides of Group II metals, the sizes of anions and cations are of the same order of magnitude. Again, the H lattice is proportional to 1/(r+ + r-). Going down the group, less energy is required to break down the ionic lattice (i.e. the H lattice becomes less negative ) as the cationic size increases, and the change in H hyd is comparatively small. That is to say, the decrease in Hsoln becomes more negative, and hence the solubility of the hydroxides of Group II metals increases down the group. 6. Conclusion The flame colour of selected s - block metal chlorides are different since the amount of energy of emitted radiation is quantized. At the same time, the solubility of selected Group II metal sulphates decreases down the group. However, the solubility of selected Group II metal hydroxides increases down the group. ...read more.

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