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The purpose of this experiment was to measure the specific heat capacity (Cb) of brass using a calorimeter.

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Introduction

Title: Specific heat capacity of brass using method of mixtuers

   specific latent heat of fusion of ice

Name: Ziyad M Alkeel

Partner’s name:  Kevin

Date :        


Objective:

The purpose of this experiment was to measure the specific heat capacity (Cb) of brass using a calorimeter.

Introduction:

Specific heat capacity is the name given to the amount of heat energy that is required to heat one kilogram of a material by 1ºC or 1K. It is a physical property that varies from one material to another.

image00.png

S.I. Units

image01.png

The symbol used for heat energy is Q Therefore using symbols the equation becomes image06.png

Rearranging gives        Q  =  m c Δθ  Joules ...... (1)

Is the quantity of heat energy required to raise the temperature of m kg of a substance, of specific heat capacity c, by Δ θ degrees.

If θf is the final temperture and θi is the initianl temperture then Δ θ=θfi        

In this experiment  a calorimeter is an insulated container. If a hot brass is placed into cooler water inside a calorimeter, the temperature of the brass θ3 will fall, while the temperature of the water θ1 will rise as heat energy is transferred from one to the other. If there are no heat losses from the calorimeter, the temperature of the system will reach equilibrium, i.e. the temperature of the brass, water and calorimeter will be the same θ2.

image07.jpgimage07.jpg

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Middle

Results:

MASS (kg)

TEMPERATURE (°C)

Copper

0.05059 ±0.000005

Θ1

22±0.5

Water

0.1051 ±0.00005

θ2

25±0.5

Brass

0.05086 ±0.00005

Θ3

103±0.5

Analysis:

MbCbΔθ= MwCwΔθ+ McCcΔθ

MbCb3- θ2)= MwCw2- θ1)+ McCc2- θ1)

0.05086 *Cb(103-25)=0.1051*4.2*103*(25-22)+ 0.05059*0.39*103*(25-22)

Cb=image08.png

Cb=image09.png

Cb=353.2 J Kg-1K-1

Cb=0.3532 J g-1K-1

Error:-

% Error =image10.png=8.7%

Discussion:

Prior to the experiment, the actual values for the specific heat capacity of brass was found. The actual value of brass = 0.387 J/g K.

There are a number of reasons why the result gained for brass is inaccurate. There could have been human error during the experiment; the brass  may have not been left in the beaker of boiling water for long enough, thus not enabling it to reach the same temperature as the water. Also the time it took to transfer the brass from the beaker of boiling water into the calorimeter may have been too long, thus letting it cool slightly. Whilst the brass was submerged in the water inside the calorimeter, the water may have not been stirred enough,thus the heat energy of the brass might not have transferred properly in the water. Also, whilst the brass was in the calorimeter, the temperature of the water may not have been allowed to reach a steady maximum temperature, thus the wrong final temperature was noted, affecting the calculation.  Also, the initial temperature of the water

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Conclusion

w).  The small pieces of dried ice was added to calorimeter until 5°C below room tempertuer θ2 ,we  were measured the final temperature..  the calorimeter was weighed.  

Results:-

MASS (kg)

TEMPERATURE (°C)

Copper

0.05059 ±0.00005

θ 1

27±0.5

Water

0.102971 ±0.0005

θ2

17±0.5

calorimeter,water and Ice

0.16392 ±0.00005

Ice

0.01036 ±0.00005

Analysis:

 Qloss= Qgain

Qwater+Qcalorimeter =Qice + Qice water

MwcwΔ θ + McccΔ θ= MiLi + Micw θ

Mw.cw.( θ1- θ2)+ Mccc( θ1- θ2)= MiLi + Mi.cw (θ2-0)

0.10297*(27-17)+0.05059*0.39*103*(27-17)= 0.01036* Li+0.01036*4.2*103*(17-0)

Li=image04.png

Li= 365.1 J Kg-1

Error:

% Error =image05.png= 9.31 %

Discussion:

There are a number of reasons why the result gained for specific latent heat of fusion is inaccurate. There could have been human error during the experiment; the ice may have not dried before dropped it into calorimeter. becuse if If the ice is not dried there will be water at 0°C on the ice.

Coclusion:

During the experiment, the calorimeter wasn’t stirred well. This might influence the separation of cooling temperature in the experiment. Also, the temperature measured only the center part of the calorimeter. So, it did not show the whole temperature of all part of calorimeter which could lead to inaccurate data of temperature recorded.

At the end of the experiment we found the specific heat capacity of brass to be        365.1 J/kg .

At the Splung web side it was said to be 334 J/kg. This was a difference of. This there was a difference in the 31.1J/kg .This was probably down to heat losses in the experiment and uncertainties or human error in the measurements. There was a 9.31%

Reference:

  1. lab manual.
  2. en.wikipedia.org.
  3. www.splung.com

...read more.

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