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The Renal System.

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Introduction

The Renal System: The renal system consists of the bladder, kidneys (the kidneys are approximately eleven-cm long, six cm wide and four cm thick), urethra and the ureters. The kidneys are placed under the bottom of the rib cage and close to the spine. There are two functions of the renal system; these are to get rid of waste materials and to control the level of water in the body. Waste materials are removed from the blood and pass out through the body during the process of excreting urine. The levels of water in the body are controlled to ensure that the concentrations of different liquids within the body are kept within safety limits. This process is called osmoregulation. The kidney's function within the body is to clean the blood and get rid of anything the body doesn't want or need or that is harmful to its self. There is a large amount of space in the kidneys. People can not only survive with one kidney but also lead very healthy, active lives if they choose to do so. ...read more.

Middle

When the body takes back what it wants to use this is called selective absorption. These two processes combined means that the kidneys are able to get rid of almost anything that enters the body, even if the body doesn't recognise it this could be a drug for example. The body gets rid of anything that enters it through ultrafiltration. Once the body recognises something (chemicals) that is useful to it they will be taken back to the kidneys through selective re-absorption. The kidneys use millions of tubes, called nephrons to carry out all these tasks. Each kidney contains nephrons, over one million, combined their total length is over 100km. Approximately 1,300ml of blood are processed a minute by the nephrons, which make 1ml of urine and return 1,299ml of clean blood back to the body. Selective Re-absorption: In a healthy person the urine should contain no glucose or protein as these useful substances have been Substance: Filtered into nephrons per day: Excreted: Blood proteins Trace 0.0g Glucose 144g 0.0g Salt 570g 15g Urea 64g 30g Water 180l 1.4l Urine can be used to determine the state of someone's health. ...read more.

Conclusion

This enables the kidneys to secrete small amounts of concentrated urine, which therefore leaves more water to be stored within the body. ADH is stopped being produced if the body's water levels are high, and the kidneys produce a lot of dilute urine, which carries any excess water out of the body. Osmoreceptors are sensory receptors which sense and determine the osmotic pressure, for example in stomach or small intestine. Osmoreceptors situated in the hypothalamus monitor the concentration of chemicals in the blood. Sodium ions are especially monitored so that a decision can be made when to turn the receptors on. Receptors in the aorta measure the volume of blood in the body. If the receptors detect a change in the blood levels, for example a fall in the levels then signals are passed out to the hypothalamus which stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete ADH. If a person's body looses a large amount of blood, (and does so quite quickly) then pressure receptors also seem to play a part at this time. Diseases of the Renal System: Severe diarrhoea is a disease of the renal system. Health and Social Care AVCE 2003 - 2005 Leonie Wade 1 N:\MyWork\AVCE Health and Social Care\Mrs Rodgers\The Renal System.doc ...read more.

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