• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Role of ATP

Extracts from this document...


The Role of ATP Living organisms all need energy to live, for reproduction and for movement. This energy is used in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is known as the 'energy currency of living organisms' and can be produced by two methods: 1. Photosynthesis 2. Chemical Energy Photosynthesis is the absorption of light energy from the sun, which is then transferred into chemical energy. It occurs in plants and results in a useful supply of carbon. Chemical energy is acquired from a 'ready made' source of carbon such as biological materials found in plants and animals, although this energy still originally comes from the sun. ...read more.


The same happens when phosphate 2 is removed. With the removal of the third however, only 13.8 kJ mol-1 is released. These reactions are reversible. ATP is an intermediate molecule between glucose and the cell. The energy transfers that take place are not always efficient, as some is lost as heat/thermal energy. Sometimes, the amount of energy available is not enough to produce ATP. The process of producing ATP is called Phosphorylation. The two main forms of Phosphorylation are: * Photophosphorylation * Oxidative Phosphorylation Photophosphorylation takes place during photosynthesis within the thylakoids of the chloroplasts. This can only happen within plants. Oxidative Phosphorylation takes place on the membranes of the mitochondria during aerobic respiration. ...read more.


A small amount of energy produced during respiration or photosynthesis is used to pump H+ ions into the intermembrane space. This creates a hydrogen ion concentration gradient on either side of the membrane, which is impermeable to H+. They move down the gradient through a protein complex containing ATP synthetase. When a 3 H+ ions have moved through, enough energy is supplied to synthesize one molecule of ATP from ADP and a phosphate. Peter Mitchell discovered this in 1961 and it is known as Chemiosmosis. ATP Synthetase Has 3 catalytic binding sites: * Binding ADP and the phosphate * Binding the ATP tighter * Releasing ATP Part of this molecule rotates as H+ ions pass which allows structural changes to the active sites that allow them to take on the three stages of ATP production. ?? ?? ?? ?? Chris Baynes Biology 09/09/09 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a star student thought of this essay

3 star(s)

Response to the question

This is good example of how to set out this type of essay and the language used is good. However the candidate doesn’t fully refer to the given statement and lacks basic detail. For the most part the candidate answers ...

Read full review

Response to the question

This is good example of how to set out this type of essay and the language used is good. However the candidate doesn’t fully refer to the given statement and lacks basic detail. For the most part the candidate answers the statement adequately, though they do not provide the basic reasons ATP is needed which is essential when discussing the role of ATP. However the essay is well laid out, the information is very clear and it is easy to follow. I would also have though it important to show the equation for the formation of ATP which is missing from this essay. ATP + H20 -----> ADP + Pi + energy.

Level of analysis

The candidate gives a reasonable level of analysis with good descriptions of structure and synthesis. There is suitable level of depth in their descriptions and s/he shows evidence of independent study as they go into a high level of detail about the quantity of energy provided by ATP. However the candidate fails to list the reasons of why we need ATP and the detail of what ATP is use for, it is needed for; movement, metabolism, active transport, maintenance, repair and division, production of substances and the maintenance of body temperature. For example It is used for metabolic processes, ATP provides energy to build up macromolecules from their basic units use as polypeptides from amino acids. There is also a lack of detail when describing the synthesis of ATP, for example it should be stated that photophosphorylation is the addition of a inorganic phosphate molecule using light energy, the term photo meaning from light. The candidate does mention that ATP is only an immediate source but doesn’t not mention that the reason it is not used as an energy store is because it is relatively unstable, fortunately though it can be manufactured rapidly and does not need to be stored. In addition ATP releases less energy than glucose therefore the energy released is in a more manageable quantity.

Quality of writing

The essay is fluent and flows well, the candidate uses a good descriptive language and there is no issue with spelling or grammar.

Did you find this review helpful? Join our team of reviewers and help other students learn

Reviewed by PicturePerfect 25/02/2012

Read less
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    effect of temperature on the rate of respiration in yeast

    5 star(s)

    The pH of yeast suspension: this should also be kept constant because increasing of pH will start to break chemical bonds in molecules therefore this changes the shape of active site and no more substrate molecule will form enzyme substrate complex. This will result in a denaturation of enzymes.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Fighter Pilot A Statistical Analysis of Reaction time and its Correlation with Dominant ...

    5 star(s)

    (1989) list fatigue as a root cause, along with many vehicle and work place accidents worldwide. (4) Studies have shown that fatigue causes the reverse of the learning process; moving the decision making from skill based cognition to knowledge based causing people to rely more on their working memory rather than

  1. Marked by a teacher

    How is ATP produced and used in living organisms?

    4 star(s)

    This stores energy until it is needed when it may be easily. This is caused and controlled by an enzyme called ATPase. ATP production is regulated by end product inhibition, this means that when the concentration gets to high because not enough is being produced, the ATP itself acts as an end-point inhibitor.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    To make sure we have plenty of energy in the future, it's up to ...

    4 star(s)

    exists in the moving waves of the ocean. That energy can be used to power a turbine. In this simple example, to the right, the wave rises into a chamber. The rising water forces the air out of the chamber. The moving air spins a turbine, which can turn a generator.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    ATP or Adenosine Triphosphate.

    3 star(s)

    The hydrogen ions produced from their removal from the reduced hydrogen acceptors are utilised in the proton pump theory and synthesise 28 ATP molecules. Overall, the whole process of cellular respiration produces 38 ATP molecules (per molecule of glucose) (Glycolysis = 8 ATP, Krebs = 2 ATP, Electron transport chain = 28 ATP).

  2. Investigate the effect of bile salt concentration on the digestion of milk by the ...

    A definition of precision is a measure of the spread of results. The smaller the spread of the data, the more precise the results will be. Precision is also linked to reproducibility or repeatability. Reliability is a measure of the consistency of the results and is linked to both accuracy and precision.

  1. the effect of bile concentration on the activity of the enzyme lipase during the ...

    breaking them down into their constituent parts of glycerol and fatty acids. For lipase that is produced by the pancreas to work at its optimum it requires a pH of that of the small intestine which is pH 8 making it slightly alkaline.

  2. Investigate the effect of changing the sugar concentration on the rate of respiration of ...

    This ensures that the enzyme does not participate in the wrong reaction. The enzyme itself is unaffected by the reaction. When the products have been released, the enzyme is ready to bind with a new substrate. This description of the enzyme is known as the lock and key method.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work