• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Role of Carbohydrates in Living Organisms

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Role of Carbohydrates in Living Organisms Carbohydrates are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The general formula is Cx(H2O)y. There are many different types of carbohydrates present in living organisms, each playing an important role in maintaining life of organisms. Monosaccharides are a group of carbohydrates, which include simple sugars such as glucose, fructose and galactose. Monosaccharides are classified according to the number of carbon atoms they possess. Trioses such as glyceraldehyde, and dihydroxyacetone contain three carbon atoms. The phosphorylated form of glyceraldehyde is the first formed sugar in photosynthesis, and may (like dihydroxyacetone) be used as respiratory substrate, or is converted to starch for storage. ...read more.

Middle

Galactose, mannose and fructose are three principal respiratory substrates in organisms. Additionally, Galactose is central in the synthesis of lactose. Fructose is also involved in the synthesis of insulin, and it sweetens fruits to attract animals in order to assist in seed dispersal. When two monosaccharides are joined together they form a disaccharide for instance, sucrose is formed in the joining of glucose and fructose, lactose in the amalgamation of glucose and galactose, and maltose in the bonding of two glucose molecules. These three respiratory substrates are the primary disaccharides in living organisms. Sucrose is vital in plants as it is the form in which most carbohydrates are transported in the phloem. ...read more.

Conclusion

It consists of long chains of glucose residues. Hydroxyl groups project outwards from hydrogen bonds with hydroxyl groups of adjacent chains to give the whole structure a high tensile strength. Cellulose is fully permeable to water and solutes and therefore does not effect exchange. Structurally, chitin, another polysaccharide, is very similar to cellulose. It forms bundles of long parallel chains, which are essential part of the arthropod skeleton. Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides, are different groups of carbohydrates essential in sustaining life of all plants and animals. By carrying out extremely important functions such as carbohydrate storage, respiratory substrates and support in both plants and animals, roles such as synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP in mammals, and fundamental aids in photosynthesis in plants, carbohydrates are absolutely obligatory in preservation of most life on earth. Adrian Conner L6E 19 September 2001 Biology ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

A very good account of the role of carbohydrates. It would benefit from diagrams of the structure of each variety of carbohydrate, but other than that very comprehensive. 4 stars.

Marked by teacher Louise Star 10/04/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Biology coursework planning - the effect of lead chloride on the growth of cress ...

    5 star(s)

    Many features of photosynthesis are therefore, affected. If the equation for photosynthesis is observed, the components that lead affects can be seen more clearly: Water + Carbon dioxide Glucose + Oxygen As discussed before, water uptake may be reduced due to the low water potential of the soil.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Describe the molecular structure of starch (amylase), glycogen and cellulose, and relate these structures ...

    4 star(s)

    These include fructose and galactose. Common five-carbon sugars (where n = 5, C5H10O5) include ribose and deoxyribose (found in nucleic acids and ATP).The formula of a carbohydrate is always (CH2O)n. The n represents the number of times the basic CH2O unit is repeated, e.g.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigation of the effect of different carbohydrate substrates on yeast growth

    4 star(s)

    Control test The change in carbohydrate is the independent variable hence not changing the carbohydrate and just adding water will be the control test due to that water is not a carbohydrate and doesn't provide a source of ATP for growth, hence the control test wil be yeast added to distilled water.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Effect Of Temperature On The Permeability Of The Cell Membrane

    3 star(s)

    * Tissue Paper - [This is used for taking any excess solution of the beetroot and to make sure the beetroot is dry.] * Cuvette- [This is used to hold the sample of coloured water from each temperature so

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Importance of diffusion to living organisms

    3 star(s)

    These are sponge-like structures in which the diffusion takes place. They are highly adapted to diffuse the gases as they give a large surface area for exchange of the gases. Also, there is only a thin layer of cells between the alveoli and the blood capillaries meaning there is a short diffusion pathway so diffusion takes place more efficiently.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    What is Type 1 diabetes

    3 star(s)

    But learning about how the body functions, giving insulin injections, controlling diet and measuring the blood glucose levels, will help to restore family life and the child's life, back to normal. The healthcare teams at the children's wards can teach you about these areas.

  1. AS biology coursework on enzymes

    PH PH has a key impact on enzyme activity. A sudden change in PH can affect the molecular structure of the enzyme and therefore reduce the chances for it to bind with substrate molecules. An explanation for this is that enzymes are proteins which have ionic bonds formed during the making of its structure.

  2. An Experiment Testing for Carbohydrates Non-Reducing sugars

    The disaccharide broke down in procedure b and c to give a positive result for a reducing sugar because the hydrochloric acid is the acid in the stomach so it breaks substances down. Also sucrase is the enzyme for sucrose so it would have also broke down the disaccharide.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work