• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Use Of Enzymes In Industry And Medicine

Extracts from this document...


The Use Of Enzymes In Industry And Medicine Enzymes are a tertiary structure protein, that is to say a three dimensional molecule comprised of amino acid chains, or polypeptides, that have been folded and made globular by ionic , hydrogen and disulphide bonds. They are biological catalysts, which tells us that they are a biological molecule, which will speed up the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy needed to start a reaction. An enzyme is a highly specific catalyst, it forms temporary bonds with a substrate to form an enzyme substrate complex, which, according to the induced fit hypothesis, is done by the enzyme itself changing shape to accommodate the substrate, which triggers catalysis, explaining the specificity of enzymes. Enzymes are used in medicine extensively, and commonly in diabetes tests, found in every general practitioner's surgery throughout the country. Diabetes Mellitus, named 'Diabetes' from Greek meaning 'siphon', indicating the common symptom of passing urine more often, and 'mellitus' comes from the Latin for 'sweet tasting.'(1) In an untreated diabetics body, there is too much glucose in the bloodstream; in other words, putting it far above the renal threshold. ...read more.


They also need to be non toxic, as well as to not react with other things put in the wash such as fabric conditioner or anti-limescale products; enzymes are also compatible with anionic and nonionic surfactants, which reduces the surface tension between water and oil. Protease is found in washing powders as it can convert protein stains, for example egg, bodily fluids, and milk; this enzyme will then convert the proteins, by hydrolysis, into shorter chain amino acids, which can be washed away easily. (5) Carbohydrases such as amylase, break down starch containing foods such as potatoes or gravy, and convert them into simple hexose sugars, such as glucose, which can be easily washed away. The alpha-amylase used also, conveniently, helps prevent the reccurance of starch stains in garments. Lipases are found in washing powder that break down lipids such as grease or butter, this means that all the common biological molecules found in foods can be converted into others which are easier to wash away and less likely to stay on the clothes. ...read more.


Another bonus of biostoning is the fact that if other fabrics, such as nylon or polyester are appliqu�d or sewn onto the fabric before washing, they will not be affected at all by the enzymes, making designer style jeans easier to create and replicate in high street stores. Biostoning also increases productivity by up to 50% (8) as the room that was previously filled with pumice in the washing machine can now be filled with more jeans, and workers spend no time fishing out wayward pumice from the denim fabric. There was only one dilemma facing the team working with biostoning, and that was the issue of 'back staining', this being when the released dye rebinds with the surface of the denim, or other fabrics attached to the denim, however this problem was hastily fixed when it was worked out that it did not occur at the enzyme's optimum pH, being 7-8. (1) en.wikipedia/wiki/Diabetes_Mellitus (2) en.wikipedia/wiki/Glucosuria (3) http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3328355 (4) Diabetes: Control In Your Hands ISBN 8122307493 Pustak Mahal 2001 (5) http://www.specialtyenzymes.com/detergents.shtml (6) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laundry_detergent#Contents (7) Key Stage 4 Science: Industrial Enzymes Channel 4, first broadcast 1999. (8) Word count: 1,092 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    To make sure we have plenty of energy in the future, it's up to ...

    4 star(s)

    Around 11 a.m, place the cookers in an area where no shadows will be cast on them This will allow the cookers to heat up prior to use. Review the angle of reflection concept with the students. Explain the method of determining the hot spot on the cookers.

  2. the effect of bile concentration on the activity of the enzyme lipase during the ...

    bring about the same changes as that sodium hydrogen carbonate would bring, making my experiment more efficient. In the experiment we found out that using 2cm3 of sodium carbonate made the pH of the milk increase to pH 9.0 and for the same volume using sodium hydrogen carbonate made the pH of the milk to increase to 7.5.

  1. Investigate the effect of bile salt concentration on the digestion of milk by the ...

    Place the calibrated pH sensor into the test tube and allow it to start recording. 8. Use a thermometer to check the temperature of the solution and write this down. This is to ensure the start temperature is the same for all the experiments.

  2. Energy absorbed by a bouncing ball.

    The graphs for all three of the balls clearly show a positive relationship between the values. If I were to plot a trend line onto the graphs, the line would be linear. The general patterns show that the bigger the initial height of the ball then the bigger the rebound height.

  1. Investigating how prolonged exposure to its optimum temperature affects the respiration of yeast.

    From a scientific standpoint, the experiment did succeed in keeping the constants the same throughout. However, one major flaw that would have truly benefited the experiment would be to see how pH would affect the respiration of yeast, by making it slightly more acidic by putting in a couple of drops of an acidic compound (possibly hydrochloric acid)

  2. out how different concentrations of the enzyme pectinase affect the degradation of the substrate ...

    loses their suspending powder. * Viscosity is reduced. * Insoluble pulp particles rapidly settle out. Factors That Affect The Enzyme Pectinase: Since pectinases are enzymes the same factors that affect enzymes also affect them. These are: * Fluctuations in temperature will affect the activity of the pectinase.

  1. To investigate how concentration of the enzyme catalase in celery extract affects the rate ...

    It becomes denatured, and cannot hold the substrate molecule. Material from - http://s-cool.co.uk Temperature is a key factor too. If it is cold there will be little or no kinetic energy and so the enzyme molecules will move around too slowly to meet the substrate molecules, so the reaction rate is slowed.

  2. formation, extraction and separation of the crude oil.

    * General formula CnH2n. * They are relatively reactive due to a weak double bond. * They are extensively used as fuels, and as base for polymer manufacture. * Names end in -ene. Equipment: * Test tubes * Delivery tube * Trough * Bunsen burner * Paraffin * Glass wool

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work