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The Use Of Enzymes In Industry And Medicine

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Introduction

The Use Of Enzymes In Industry And Medicine Enzymes are a tertiary structure protein, that is to say a three dimensional molecule comprised of amino acid chains, or polypeptides, that have been folded and made globular by ionic , hydrogen and disulphide bonds. They are biological catalysts, which tells us that they are a biological molecule, which will speed up the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy needed to start a reaction. An enzyme is a highly specific catalyst, it forms temporary bonds with a substrate to form an enzyme substrate complex, which, according to the induced fit hypothesis, is done by the enzyme itself changing shape to accommodate the substrate, which triggers catalysis, explaining the specificity of enzymes. Enzymes are used in medicine extensively, and commonly in diabetes tests, found in every general practitioner's surgery throughout the country. Diabetes Mellitus, named 'Diabetes' from Greek meaning 'siphon', indicating the common symptom of passing urine more often, and 'mellitus' comes from the Latin for 'sweet tasting.'(1) In an untreated diabetics body, there is too much glucose in the bloodstream; in other words, putting it far above the renal threshold. ...read more.

Middle

They also need to be non toxic, as well as to not react with other things put in the wash such as fabric conditioner or anti-limescale products; enzymes are also compatible with anionic and nonionic surfactants, which reduces the surface tension between water and oil. Protease is found in washing powders as it can convert protein stains, for example egg, bodily fluids, and milk; this enzyme will then convert the proteins, by hydrolysis, into shorter chain amino acids, which can be washed away easily. (5) Carbohydrases such as amylase, break down starch containing foods such as potatoes or gravy, and convert them into simple hexose sugars, such as glucose, which can be easily washed away. The alpha-amylase used also, conveniently, helps prevent the reccurance of starch stains in garments. Lipases are found in washing powder that break down lipids such as grease or butter, this means that all the common biological molecules found in foods can be converted into others which are easier to wash away and less likely to stay on the clothes. ...read more.

Conclusion

Another bonus of biostoning is the fact that if other fabrics, such as nylon or polyester are appliqu�d or sewn onto the fabric before washing, they will not be affected at all by the enzymes, making designer style jeans easier to create and replicate in high street stores. Biostoning also increases productivity by up to 50% (8) as the room that was previously filled with pumice in the washing machine can now be filled with more jeans, and workers spend no time fishing out wayward pumice from the denim fabric. There was only one dilemma facing the team working with biostoning, and that was the issue of 'back staining', this being when the released dye rebinds with the surface of the denim, or other fabrics attached to the denim, however this problem was hastily fixed when it was worked out that it did not occur at the enzyme's optimum pH, being 7-8. (1) en.wikipedia/wiki/Diabetes_Mellitus (2) en.wikipedia/wiki/Glucosuria (3) http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3328355 (4) Diabetes: Control In Your Hands ISBN 8122307493 Pustak Mahal 2001 (5) http://www.specialtyenzymes.com/detergents.shtml (6) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laundry_detergent#Contents (7) Key Stage 4 Science: Industrial Enzymes Channel 4, first broadcast 1999. (8) http://134.68.135.1/jitt/sampler/biology/bio_archive/goodfor15.html Word count: 1,092 ...read more.

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