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The use of pectinase in fruit juice production

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Introduction

The use of pectinase in fruit juice production - Pectinase is a mixture of enzymes which is used in the fruit juice industry where they extract, clarify and modify fruit juices. (Cellulose also does this). Pectins are large polysaccharide molecules. They are made of hundreds of chains of galacturonic acid residues. The pectin chain is held together by a bond between carbon 1 of one galacturonic acid and carbon 4 of the next one and so on. The diagram shows where the pectin comes from in a plant. It is gel like and forms in the primary cell walls and in the middle lamella layer which sticks adjacent cells together. ...read more.

Middle

Water is produced so pectinase is known as a hydrolytic enzyme. It splits a water molecule and adds -H to one carbon in the bond and an -OH to the other one. The enzymes use the common key and lock theory, where the pectin is the substrate and binds into the active site of the pectinase enzyme and the enzyme breaks down the substrate and gives of products: Pectins are good at binding water (pectin in jam is what makes it set), but only when the pectin molecules are quite large. So, pectinase is used in industry to help increase yield of juice from fruit processing. ...read more.

Conclusion

The problems of extracting juice from citrus pulp and reducing the viscosity of the juice for concentration are similar to non-citrus fruit processing. But citrus juices and in particular orange juice are meant to be cloudy as much or the desired flavour and colour depends on the insoluble, cloudy materials of the pressed juice. The stability of the cloudiness is controlled by changing of the pectin component of the juice. FACT: - The optimum pH for the main polygalacturonases activity is usually in the acidic range 4.8 to 5.0. "The pectinase enzyme break down pectins, which increase the yield of juice from the fruits by 20% and only 150cm �, may be required for a tonne of apples. Each year, tonnes of apple juice are produced and using the enzyme pectinase enables the business to continue running as it saves on costs. ...read more.

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Relevant information sources have been used and there is some good biological content. However, in general there is a lack of detail, and further explanation of points made would make a big difference to the quality.

Marked by teacher Adam Roberts 17/09/2013

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