• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The use of pectinase in fruit juice production

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The use of pectinase in fruit juice production - Pectinase is a mixture of enzymes which is used in the fruit juice industry where they extract, clarify and modify fruit juices. (Cellulose also does this). Pectins are large polysaccharide molecules. They are made of hundreds of chains of galacturonic acid residues. The pectin chain is held together by a bond between carbon 1 of one galacturonic acid and carbon 4 of the next one and so on. The diagram shows where the pectin comes from in a plant. It is gel like and forms in the primary cell walls and in the middle lamella layer which sticks adjacent cells together. ...read more.

Middle

Water is produced so pectinase is known as a hydrolytic enzyme. It splits a water molecule and adds -H to one carbon in the bond and an -OH to the other one. The enzymes use the common key and lock theory, where the pectin is the substrate and binds into the active site of the pectinase enzyme and the enzyme breaks down the substrate and gives of products: Pectins are good at binding water (pectin in jam is what makes it set), but only when the pectin molecules are quite large. So, pectinase is used in industry to help increase yield of juice from fruit processing. ...read more.

Conclusion

The problems of extracting juice from citrus pulp and reducing the viscosity of the juice for concentration are similar to non-citrus fruit processing. But citrus juices and in particular orange juice are meant to be cloudy as much or the desired flavour and colour depends on the insoluble, cloudy materials of the pressed juice. The stability of the cloudiness is controlled by changing of the pectin component of the juice. FACT: - The optimum pH for the main polygalacturonases activity is usually in the acidic range 4.8 to 5.0. "The pectinase enzyme break down pectins, which increase the yield of juice from the fruits by 20% and only 150cm �, may be required for a tonne of apples. Each year, tonnes of apple juice are produced and using the enzyme pectinase enables the business to continue running as it saves on costs. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

***
Relevant information sources have been used and there is some good biological content. However, in general there is a lack of detail, and further explanation of points made would make a big difference to the quality.

Marked by teacher Adam Roberts 17/09/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    effect of concentration of copper sulphate on the action of amylase to break down ...

    4 star(s)

    Main method 1. Using different pipettes measure out 4ml of amylase, 4ml of starch, 2ml of buffer solution and 1ml of 0.1% of copper sulphate solution. 2. Add the starch, buffer solution and copper sulphate solution into a test tube.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of temperature on the enzyme pectinase in fruit juice production.

    3 star(s)

    They also have the additional task to help clarify and modify fruit juices. Industrially, Pectinase is made using the micro-organism ERWINIA CAROTOVORA, a soft-rot bacterium. This is a valuable source of Pectinase because the micro-organism is easy to manipulate genetically and the result is a high yield of pectinase which can be easily extracted.

  1. The use of pectinase in fruit juice production

    * Two test tubes of the same mass of apple sauce were prepared. One test tube contained 1 cm3 of pectinase and 1cm3 of buffer solution of pH 5.5. The other test tube did not contain pectinase but 1 cm3 of the same buffer solution.

  2. Investigation on a ripening banana to indicate the biochemical changes to make it sweet.

    By comparing the difference in amount of starch and reducing sugar during the different stage of storage, we can tell that the decrease of starch and the increase of reducing sugar are related. In the experiment, we can observe the formation of blue-black spots in the extract of banana stored

  1. An experiment to find of the isotonic point of root vegetables cells in contents ...

    1 30 32 30 31 30 29 30 28 30 27 Run 2 30 31 30 30 30 30 30 29 30 28 Run 3 30 31 30 30 30 29 30 29 30 27 Mean 30.0 31.33 30.0 30.33 30.0 29.33 30.0 28.6 30.0 27.33 Difference (mm)

  2. Investigating Catalase Activity in Different Plant Tissues.

    22 0.046 10 65 0.015 61 0.016 0.015 68 0.015 72 0.014 Graph Analysing My graph shows a pattern that is virtually the same as my prediction. At pH 1.5 the average rate is 0.000s-1. By pH 4 the average rate has gone up to 0.017s-1.

  1. WHAT EFFECT DOES SUBSTRATE HAVE ON THE RATE OF RESPIRATION IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE?

    The table below summarises the total amount of ATP produced by respiration of one glucose molecule. However, the table above is only appropriate to aerobic (with oxygen) respiration. So if oxygen is present, the four stages summarised above occur, synthesising 38 molecules of ATP but what happens when no oxygen is present?

  2. To find out how different concentrations of sucrose solution affect the incipient plasmolysis of ...

    When cutting the root vegetable cylinders ,they all need to be cut to the same size in length to keep the experiment fair and the same person must cut all the root vegetables because different people have different levels of accuracy according to there eye sight.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work