• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The use of pectinase in fruit juice production

Extracts from this document...


The use of pectinase in fruit juice production - Pectinase is a mixture of enzymes which is used in the fruit juice industry where they extract, clarify and modify fruit juices. (Cellulose also does this). Pectins are large polysaccharide molecules. They are made of hundreds of chains of galacturonic acid residues. The pectin chain is held together by a bond between carbon 1 of one galacturonic acid and carbon 4 of the next one and so on. The diagram shows where the pectin comes from in a plant. It is gel like and forms in the primary cell walls and in the middle lamella layer which sticks adjacent cells together. ...read more.


Water is produced so pectinase is known as a hydrolytic enzyme. It splits a water molecule and adds -H to one carbon in the bond and an -OH to the other one. The enzymes use the common key and lock theory, where the pectin is the substrate and binds into the active site of the pectinase enzyme and the enzyme breaks down the substrate and gives of products: Pectins are good at binding water (pectin in jam is what makes it set), but only when the pectin molecules are quite large. So, pectinase is used in industry to help increase yield of juice from fruit processing. ...read more.


The problems of extracting juice from citrus pulp and reducing the viscosity of the juice for concentration are similar to non-citrus fruit processing. But citrus juices and in particular orange juice are meant to be cloudy as much or the desired flavour and colour depends on the insoluble, cloudy materials of the pressed juice. The stability of the cloudiness is controlled by changing of the pectin component of the juice. FACT: - The optimum pH for the main polygalacturonases activity is usually in the acidic range 4.8 to 5.0. "The pectinase enzyme break down pectins, which increase the yield of juice from the fruits by 20% and only 150cm �, may be required for a tonne of apples. Each year, tonnes of apple juice are produced and using the enzyme pectinase enables the business to continue running as it saves on costs. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

Relevant information sources have been used and there is some good biological content. However, in general there is a lack of detail, and further explanation of points made would make a big difference to the quality.

Marked by teacher Adam Roberts 17/09/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Analysing the vitamin C content in different fruit juices

    5 star(s)

    turn pink in acid conditions and further be reduced to a colourless compound by ascorbic acid. DCPIP (blue) + H+ ??? DCPIPH (pink) DCPIPH (pink) + VitC ??? DCPIPH2 (colorless) Figure 4 : the actual chemical reaction that occurs when DCPIP reacts with fruit juice In a titration, when all

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of temperature on the enzyme pectinase in fruit juice production.

    3 star(s)

    Pectin forms gels that bind liquid and this is the reason why Pectinase improves juice extraction. Pectinase works by splitting the bonds between the galacturonic acids to shorten the pectin chain. They are widely used in the fruit juice industry to help extract fruit juices.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Effect of pH on Pectinase

    3 star(s)

    Enzymes are just special globular proteins. If we were to look back at the secondary structure of globular proteins we could see that hydrogen bonding is important in the formation of proteins. Amino acids, that build up proteins, contain both a -CO (carboxyl group)

  2. The Effect of Concentration on Pectinase Using Apple

    This is a suitable range as a lot of the juice should be filtered out by this time and suitable conclusions can be made. The whole experiment will be repeated 3 times and an average volume of juice produced will be found for each time interval.

  1. To investigate how temperature affects the concentration of vitamin C in orange juice (specifically ...

    Like other proteins, collagen consists of polypeptide chains; the long chains of this fibrous molecule contain about one thousand amino-acid residues that totals around 1600 atoms. It differs from most other proteins in being largely composed of but two amino acids, glycine and hydroxyproline.

  2. Investigating the effect of temperature on the activity of free and immobilised enzymes.

    Taking the reading before or after 2 minutes may mean that too much or too little a % of glucose has been recorded. * it must be ensured that when taking readings off the measuring cylinders and thermometers etc, the readings are taken from the bottom of the meniscus at


    Plasmolysis occurs when the pressure potential effectively becomes negative. A solution with a solute potential which is equal to the solute potential of the cells will cause incipient plasmolysis. EVALUATION OF PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION The experiment as a whole was quite good for a pilot study.

  2. Investigation of the effect of adding different concentrations of NaCl to an enzyme-substrate (amylase-starch) ...

    Fungal amylase and glucoamylase can be used together to convert starch to simple sugars. The practical applications of this type of enzyme mixture include the production of corn syrup and the conversion of cereal mashes to sugars in brewing. Hypothesis The above shows the role of the enzyme amylase and the substrate starch in the following experiment.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work