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The uses of enzyme in industry

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Introduction

The uses of enzyme in industry Any group of chemical substances which are produced by living cells and which cause particular chemical reactions to happen while not being changed themselves (Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary) ffffAlso with the ability to catalyze certain reactions, make enzymes a very suitable in the making of specific products. Enzymes do this by lowering the activation level of the substrate that needs to broken down, this is useful as for certain compounds may not be need to broken be down in the substrate solutions so as enzymes are specific to one type of substrate it will only target the required substrate. The reason for lowering the activation level is useful because it then requires less energy for the reaction to take place thus lowering the price and time of reaction. Enzymes are biodegradable and therefore cheaper to dispose of as expensive removal methods are not required. The majority work at obtainable temperatures neutral conditions and at atmospheric conditions, thus making them relatively low-cost to maintain. Disadvantages of using enzymes in industry is that they need to be exceptionally hygienically clean to avoid contamination this is known as using aseptic techniques, slight changes in the delicate pH balance or temperature increase may lead to a possibility of rendering the enzyme batch useless. ...read more.

Middle

After the correct enzyme is believed to be acquired a scientist will perform a tester experiment in the laboratory known as basic screening. If the enzyme output reaches all required levels the operation starts on industrial scale, this is knows as 'scaling up' This is a diagram of an industrial batch fermenter. The solution inside is stirred regularly to make sure all the microorganisms come into to contacts with nutrients and air, the temperature and pH sensors are there to monitor levels to make sure it all stays stable and at an optimum environment. The cooling jacket is cooled by cool water entering at one end and leaving at another, this is necessary as the reactions from inside the fermenter are exothermic thus give of heat. Sterile air is input at towards the bottom of the fermenter to make sure that it gets to most of the solution as it moves up through the fermenter. To obtain the enzymes from the fermenter it is necessary to filter them, once this has happened the enzymes are concentrated by removing the water. Antibacterial agents are added to prevent contamination from outside factors. A quality control check is implied to make sure that the enzymes are up to regulation quality. ...read more.

Conclusion

At the moment the most successful applications are extra cellular mainly used for topical cases (e.g. a fungus on the skin), they are also used successfully used in the removal of toxic substances and helping blood circulation. Here is a table which shows the application of enzymes in medical circumstances. (http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/biology/enztech/medical.html) Enzyme Use Asparaginase Leukaemia Collagenase Skin ulcers Glutaminase Leukaemia Hyaluronidasea Heart attack Lysozyme Antibiotic Rhodanaseb Cyanide poisoning Ribonuclease Antiviral ?-Lactamase Penicillin allergy Streptokinasec Blood clots Trypsin Inflammation Uricased Gout Urokinasee Blood clots As enzymes are specific biological catalysts they are the most suitable substance to treat metabolic type problems, however regrettably some factors limit its potential capability in this area. These can include: * They are too large to be distributed through the body cells. * As they are generally foreign products sometimes the immune system will attack them making the problem more severe. * There effective life time of circulation may be only a few minutes. Without enzymes our medical technology would not be as effective, many people would not have been able to survive with out the help of enzymes. Advancing technology relies greatly on enzymes, whether it is within medical application practice or producing food supplies on behalf of third world countries. Enzymes play an important role our lives as natural occurring but also as when the need for human intervention with enzymes in considered necessary. ...read more.

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