• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

This investigation is an investigation to find the concentration of two unknown solutions, Na0H and HCl by titration.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Titration of an unknown solution Abstract This investigation is an investigation to find the concentration of two unknown solutions, Na0H and HCl by titration. This titration was to calculate how much solution it took to neutralise a solution. From these results we could use the molarity to calculate the concentration of the solution. The concentration of HCl in this titration was 1.07mol/dm3 and the concentration for Na0H was 1.22mol/dm3. Introduction Two solutions of unknown concentration will be reacted with two known concentrated solutions. This investigation is being carried out to determine the unknown concentrations for both solutions, to determine this, two titrations will be carried out. The first titration being carried out is between an alkali, which is Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) with a known concentration of 0.1mol/dm3 and an acid, which is Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) with unknown concentration. The second titration is finding the unknown concentration of an alkali, which is Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) by reacting it with an acid, Sodium Hydrogen Sulphate (NaHSO4) with a known concentration of 0.1mol/dm3. The first step in carrying out this investigation was calculating the mass of the substances which needed to be dissolved in distilled water in each titration. To do this, the moles in the substances must be worked out by using the equation Moles=Molarity x Volume. ...read more.

Middle

The 2nd titration uses Sodium Hydrogen Sulphate with concentration of 0.1mol/dm3 and sodium hydroxide of unknown concentration. A 25cm3 pipette is filled using Sodium Hydrogen Sulphate and transferred to a conical flask where 4 drops of Methyl orange should be added to the Sodium Hydrogen Sulphate turning the solution red. The conical flask should be placed directly under the burette and the burette should be filled to 0.0cm3 with Sodium Hydroxide. Next the tap on the burette should be open enabling the Sodium Hydroxide to mix with the Sodium Hydrogen Sulphate. To ensure both mixture are mixing together; the conical flask should be rotated. When the solution in the conical flask starts to become colourless the tap on the burette should be open and closed repeatedly allowing small amounts of solution out until the solution in the conical flask is colourless. Once colourless the results should be recorded in a table and the experiment must be repeated until 10 results have been recorded. Diagram to show the set-up of the titration used in this report http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4d/Titration_Apparatus.png Image sourced from- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retort_stand Results 1st Titration Attempt Amount of Hydrochloric acid took to neutralise 25cm3 of Sodium Hydroxide (ml)±0.05 1 21.8 2 23.5 3 23.2 4 23.3 5 23.2 6 23.6 7 23.5 8 23.1 9 23.8 10 23.9 Average 23.3 Standard Deviation 23.3±0.6 2nd Titration Attempt Amount of Sodium ...read more.

Conclusion

In the first Titration we can use the results to find out the concentration of Hydrochloric Acid. On average it took 23.29ml of Hydrochloric acid to neutralise 25cm3 Sodium Hydroxide. To find the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid, this equation must be used. There are some similarities between the experimental and theoretical results of both titrations. The only anomalous result in the first experiment was due to the equipment not being cleaned before the experiment. Apart from that the experiment went well and was reliable and accurate. From the experiment, the results show that it takes 23.23cm3 of Hydrochloric Acid to neutralise 25ml of sodium hydroxide and 20.5cm3 Sodium hydroxide to neutralise 25ml Sodium Hydrogen Sulphate. The experiment is easy to set up and the method is easy to follow. Titration in industry is very important. An example of titration in industry is when the pH of juice is tested. They use titration on the juice to see if it meets the required standards of the product, also titration allows science industries to test if a product contains how many moles it actually says. Titration is only used on the prototype and then is used on every batch of product made to make sure it consistently meets the standards. Titration enables us to find the known pH and concentration of a solution. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Determination of the Amounts of Sodium Hydroxide Solution and Sodium Carbonate in a Mixed ...

    Barium chloride solution was poured into the conical flask until no more white solids were formed. 15. Hydrochloric acid was filled into the burette. The initial reading was taken. 16. Using phenolphthalein as indicator, the solution in the conical flask was titrated until the color changed from pink to colorless.

  2. Preparation of Standard solution and Standardization of Hydrochloric acid

    indicator were transferred as droplets always adhere on the flask wall and was not rinsed with distilled or de-ionized water. Tenth, excess volume of liquid will be transferred by blowing pipette for example, or by incorrectly leveling meniscus with the mark on the single volume pipette.

  1. Drug: Antacid Effectiveness Analysis To determine the neutralizing ability of antacids in different ...

    Use eye protection at all times and immediately wash spills from your skin and clothing. 6. The burette must be rinsed out with NaOH before use to prevent dilution of the solution.

  2. Thermometric Titration.

    it would take a long time and thus have increase the amount of acid we injected into the cup so decreasing accuracy. Also Human error could be a factor if accidentally a couple of extra drops slipped into the solution and could amount to 0.5cm cubed and therefore my results would be wrong.

  1. Acid-Base Titrations.

    Chemical indicators are acid-base conjugate pairs whose acid form and base form are different in color. A table of useful chemical indicators is given below. Table: Properties of Aqueous Acid-Base Indicators at 25oC Indicator pH range pKa Acid Form Base Form methyl violet 0.0- 1.6 0.8 yellow blue thymol blue

  2. Lab Report. Objective: To determine the concentration of unknown standard sodium hydroxide solution ...

    The corresponding volume ratio of acid to base = 19:20 Molarity of sodium hydroxide solution = 19�20�1.00 = 0.95M For enthalpy change: Method 2 Using nitric acid: (A graph is attached at page 7) Initial Temperature = 25.5? Volume of acid added (cm3)

  1. How are standard solutions prepared & how is titration carried out in industry

    1. Back titration method (BTM) 1. This is used for many reasons, this includes: when the sample contains impurities that interfere with forward titration, when the sample is not soluble in water or when the end-point is more easily identified than in forward titration.

  2. Making a Standard Solution and Titration to Find Molarity of Unknown Acid

    you are looking for the first colour change that lasts for approximately 10 seconds, repeat the titration until you have 3 results within .1 of each other. In my titrations I did 4, the first result was 22.6ml used, the second was 23.1ml, third was 22.7ml and the final one was 22.8ml.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work