• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
1. 1
1
2. 2
2
3. 3
3
4. 4
4
5. 5
5
6. 6
6
7. 7
7
8. 8
8
9. 9
9
10. 10
10
11. 11
11
12. 12
12
13. 13
13
14. 14
14
15. 15
15
16. 16
16
17. 17
17
18. 18
18

# Title: Temperature Equilibrium in Squash Balls.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

A2 Physics Coursework Name: Robert Harrison School: Bancrofts Date: November 2002 Master: Mr Jacques Title: Temperature Equilibrium in Squash Balls Aims: * I aim to investigate aspects of temperature change in squash balls. For a squash ball to be used in a match it should be warmed up first; I wish to investigate how many strikes of the ball a player must have to warm the ball up. * I also aim to find the optimum temperature of squash balls, when the heat loss to surroundings will be equal to the heat gained from the deformation process. Research Background I am a keen sports player, and have been very interested by how differing balls can affect sport, for example, during this summer's 'World Cup 2002' in South Korea, the balls used were said to swerve more, and would cause more problems for the goalkeepers. I also have first hand experience of seeing how different cricket balls can affect games, as all balls are produced with slightly different characteristics. Some balls behave differently depending on different weather and pitch conditions. It was this that made me more interested into how various types of squash ball were different. I did not originally understand how the different colours of the balls affected how the balls reacted in terms of the bounce: whether it depended on the temperature of the balls and/or their elasticity. I started by dropping a squash ball onto a perfectly hard floor. It will rebound, but even the "liveliest " ball will not rise back to its starting position. Why does it bounce back, and why does it loose height on the rebound? What are the forces involved? Why do players warm up the ball before starting a match? Sources Initially I used an Internet search engine (http://www.google.com/) to look for information on squash balls. The sites I found most useful were: http://www.worldsquash.org (website of the sports governing body) ...read more.

Middle

This is because the relative humidity and ambient temperature is known to have a marked effect on the performance of the ball as well as on the fitness of the players. The WSF recommend humidity of 45 % (+ or - 5%) and an ambient temperature of 22o C (+ or - 2o). I decided to use a scientific thermo-hygrometer that recorded both air temperature and humidity to ensure that neither of these factors significantly influenced my results. Pilot Test To carry out a pilot test I went onto a squash court with only a squash racquet and ball. Through hitting the ball many times and holding onto the ball I could tell that the more times I hit the ball the warmer it felt. I also noticed how the bounce and speed of the ball appeared to be increasing as the temperature of the ball appeared to increase. Conducting the pilot Method I intend to hit the y coloured squash ball x number of times, and then connecting it to the thermocouple (which will be in very close proximity) I will be able to get a reading of the surface temperature of the squash ball. One connection of the thermocouple is attached to the ball while the other is dipped in an ice bath. The thermocouple measures the difference in the temperatures between the surface of the squash ball and the ice bath. The ice bath is used as a constant because air temperature is not easily controllable and is an unavoidable variable. Conducting my test The hit count will be restarted when the ball returns to its original surface temperature then, the next reading can commence, with a change in the value of x as the variable. When the value of x is changed and the temperature has reached a constant level then the data for that set is complete. The experiment is repeated, this time with a change in the colour y of the ball. ...read more.

Conclusion

26 24 24 26 24.7 15 28 28 30 28 28 30 28.7 20 33 33 35 33 33 35 33.7 25 38 39 39 38 39 39 38.7 30 42 42 42 42 42 42 42.0 35 43 42 44 43 42 43 42.8 40 44 43 44 43 43 43 43.3 45 44 44 44 43 44 44 43.8 Green Ball School Woodford Wells Temperature in oC Hits Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 Series 4 Series 5 Series 6 Average 0 19 18 19 19 20 19 19.0 1 19 18 19 19 20 20 19.2 2 20 19 19 20 20 21 19.8 5 21 21 22 21 21 22 21.3 10 25 24 27 25 24 26 25.2 15 32 32 33 32 32 33 32.3 20 32 39 39 37 39 39 38.6 25 42 43 43 42 43 43 42.7 30 43 43 43 43 43 43 43.0 35 44 43 44 43 43 44 43.5 40 44 43 44 44 43 44 43.7 45 44 43 44 44 43 44 43.7 Blue Ball School Woodford Wells Temperature in oC Hits Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 Series 4 Series 5 Series 6 Average 0 20 18 18 20 20 19 19.2 1 20 19 19 20 20 19 19.5 2 20 19 19 21 20 19 19.7 5 21 20 20 21 21 19 20.3 10 22 21 20 21 21 20 20.8 15 22 21 20 22 21 20 21.0 20 22 22 21 22 22 21 21.7 25 22 22 21 22 22 21 21.7 30 23 22 21 23 22 21 22.0 35 23 22 22 23 22 22 22.3 40 23 22 22 23 22 22 22.3 45 23 23 23 23 23 23 23.0 Aims Physics A2 Coursework Robert Harrison Page 1 of 18 November 2002 Research Planning Implementation Observations & Results Evaluation Conclusion Appendix 1 Results Sheet October 2002 Appendix 2 Specification of yellow dot ball Appendix 3 Results Tables ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

## Found what you're looking for?

• Start learning 29% faster today
• 150,000+ documents available
• Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

# Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

1. ## Fighter Pilot A Statistical Analysis of Reaction time and its Correlation with Dominant ...

5 star(s)

(15) Further research into the effects of caffeine shows its levels of addiction and impacts, as caffeine works similarly to drugs like cocaine (though on a much smaller level) it blocks adenosine reception so making a person feel alert, (15) injects adrenaline into the system and gives a person a boost while manipulating dopamine production to make a person feel good.

2. ## Home Economics - Why is nutrition important to sports people?

5 star(s)

1 gram of carbohydrate provides 16kJ (3.75kCal). For the purposes of food labelling, a conversion factor of 17kJ (4kcal) is used. * The body requires a constant source of glucose. If the diet is low in carbohydrate, a greater percentage of dietary protein is used to provide glucose, which means

1. ## To make sure we have plenty of energy in the future, it's up to ...

4 star(s)

When your parents buy a new car, tell them to compare the fuel efficiency of different models and buy a car that gets higher miles per gallon. You can also save energy in your school. Each week you can choose an energy monitor who will make sure energy is being used properly.

2. ## Energy absorbed by a bouncing ball.

There are a number of different methods in which I can carry out this experiment, but I have chosen to use the following method because it was easily available for me to carry out in the school science laboratories. Other methods that I could have chosen to collect my results

1. ## An investigation into the distribution of adult and juvenile limpets on a rocky shoreline.

The second preference is the lower shore as 592 limpets were found in the sampling but only 99 limpets were found in the upper shore making it the most undesirable part of the shore to inhabit.

2. ## A Comparative Study of the Density of Patella Vulgata (Common Limpets) in the Optimum ...

* Dependant: number of limpets/limpet density. * Control: temperature could not necessarily be kept the same due to weather fluctuations, but the experimental procedure was carried out on the same day, at the same time to ensure temperature stayed as constant as possible.

1. ## Investigating how prolonged exposure to its optimum temperature affects the respiration of yeast.

that yeast respires at, before discovering how prolonged exposure affects the rate at which it respires. Consequently, a pilot method must be conducted in order to discover this. Enzymes in yeast use a lock-and-key mechanism just like all other kinds of enzyme.

2. ## Why the Body Needs Energy? Every living cell within the ...

The blood it self looks red liquid however if you put it in the test tube it separates the blood in to a pale liquid called plasma and a solid layer of blood. The blood holds about 55% of plasma and 45% of cells.

• Over 160,000 pieces
of student written work
• Annotated by
experienced teachers
• Ideas and feedback to