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Title: Temperature Equilibrium in Squash Balls.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

A2 Physics Coursework Name: Robert Harrison School: Bancrofts Date: November 2002 Master: Mr Jacques Title: Temperature Equilibrium in Squash Balls Aims: * I aim to investigate aspects of temperature change in squash balls. For a squash ball to be used in a match it should be warmed up first; I wish to investigate how many strikes of the ball a player must have to warm the ball up. * I also aim to find the optimum temperature of squash balls, when the heat loss to surroundings will be equal to the heat gained from the deformation process. Research Background I am a keen sports player, and have been very interested by how differing balls can affect sport, for example, during this summer's 'World Cup 2002' in South Korea, the balls used were said to swerve more, and would cause more problems for the goalkeepers. I also have first hand experience of seeing how different cricket balls can affect games, as all balls are produced with slightly different characteristics. Some balls behave differently depending on different weather and pitch conditions. It was this that made me more interested into how various types of squash ball were different. I did not originally understand how the different colours of the balls affected how the balls reacted in terms of the bounce: whether it depended on the temperature of the balls and/or their elasticity. I started by dropping a squash ball onto a perfectly hard floor. It will rebound, but even the "liveliest " ball will not rise back to its starting position. Why does it bounce back, and why does it loose height on the rebound? What are the forces involved? Why do players warm up the ball before starting a match? Sources Initially I used an Internet search engine (http://www.google.com/) to look for information on squash balls. The sites I found most useful were: http://www.worldsquash.org (website of the sports governing body) ...read more.

Middle

This is because the relative humidity and ambient temperature is known to have a marked effect on the performance of the ball as well as on the fitness of the players. The WSF recommend humidity of 45 % (+ or - 5%) and an ambient temperature of 22o C (+ or - 2o). I decided to use a scientific thermo-hygrometer that recorded both air temperature and humidity to ensure that neither of these factors significantly influenced my results. Pilot Test To carry out a pilot test I went onto a squash court with only a squash racquet and ball. Through hitting the ball many times and holding onto the ball I could tell that the more times I hit the ball the warmer it felt. I also noticed how the bounce and speed of the ball appeared to be increasing as the temperature of the ball appeared to increase. Conducting the pilot Method I intend to hit the y coloured squash ball x number of times, and then connecting it to the thermocouple (which will be in very close proximity) I will be able to get a reading of the surface temperature of the squash ball. One connection of the thermocouple is attached to the ball while the other is dipped in an ice bath. The thermocouple measures the difference in the temperatures between the surface of the squash ball and the ice bath. The ice bath is used as a constant because air temperature is not easily controllable and is an unavoidable variable. Conducting my test The hit count will be restarted when the ball returns to its original surface temperature then, the next reading can commence, with a change in the value of x as the variable. When the value of x is changed and the temperature has reached a constant level then the data for that set is complete. The experiment is repeated, this time with a change in the colour y of the ball. ...read more.

Conclusion

26 24 24 26 24.7 15 28 28 30 28 28 30 28.7 20 33 33 35 33 33 35 33.7 25 38 39 39 38 39 39 38.7 30 42 42 42 42 42 42 42.0 35 43 42 44 43 42 43 42.8 40 44 43 44 43 43 43 43.3 45 44 44 44 43 44 44 43.8 Green Ball School Woodford Wells Temperature in oC Hits Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 Series 4 Series 5 Series 6 Average 0 19 18 19 19 20 19 19.0 1 19 18 19 19 20 20 19.2 2 20 19 19 20 20 21 19.8 5 21 21 22 21 21 22 21.3 10 25 24 27 25 24 26 25.2 15 32 32 33 32 32 33 32.3 20 32 39 39 37 39 39 38.6 25 42 43 43 42 43 43 42.7 30 43 43 43 43 43 43 43.0 35 44 43 44 43 43 44 43.5 40 44 43 44 44 43 44 43.7 45 44 43 44 44 43 44 43.7 Blue Ball School Woodford Wells Temperature in oC Hits Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 Series 4 Series 5 Series 6 Average 0 20 18 18 20 20 19 19.2 1 20 19 19 20 20 19 19.5 2 20 19 19 21 20 19 19.7 5 21 20 20 21 21 19 20.3 10 22 21 20 21 21 20 20.8 15 22 21 20 22 21 20 21.0 20 22 22 21 22 22 21 21.7 25 22 22 21 22 22 21 21.7 30 23 22 21 23 22 21 22.0 35 23 22 22 23 22 22 22.3 40 23 22 22 23 22 22 22.3 45 23 23 23 23 23 23 23.0 Aims Physics A2 Coursework Robert Harrison Page 1 of 18 November 2002 Research Planning Implementation Observations & Results Evaluation Conclusion Appendix 1 Results Sheet October 2002 Appendix 2 Specification of yellow dot ball Appendix 3 Results Tables ...read more.

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