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Titration Coursework

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Introduction

Titration Coursework Aim: My aim of this investigation is to find out the concentration of Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4) in a solution between 0.05 and 0.15 mol dm-3. During this investigation, I will be making a standard solution of Sodium Carbonate, of strength of 0.1 molar (M). In order to create this solution, I will be using a 250ml volumetric flask Firstly, I will need to know how much sodium carbonate I will need to use in my standard solution, which means that I will need to know the amount of moles and grams needed. For 1dm3: M = 0.1x106 = 10.6g For 250ml: 10.6 x 0.25 = 2.65g of Sodium carbonate By looking at above, you can see that by working out the amount of mass needed, I will need to use 2.65g of sodium carbonate to make my standard solution. Indicator solution For my solutions, I will be using an indicator solution, which is called methyl orange. This indicator is often chosen to be used in titrations because of its clear colour change. For the reason that it changes colour at the pH of a mid-strength acid, it is usually used in titrations for acids. Unlike a universal indicator, methyl orange does not have a full spectrum of colour change, but has a sharper end point. The reason why I will be using this indicator is because I am going to be using a strong acid and a weak alkali. As a result, for a titration that involves a strong acid and a weak alkali I would have to use this type of indicator. ...read more.

Middle

I will talk about the risks that are posed and I will explain how they can be overcome. One of the main risks of this experiment is the sulphuric acid, as it is irritant. I will also need to be aware of it getting in my eyes as it can cause irritation in my eyes as well. In order for me to reduce this risk, I will use a dilute sulphuric acid to minimise corrosiveness. Alongside this, I will need to wear goggles at all time to not allow the acid to come in contact with my eyes. The sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which I use is very irritant if in contact with skin or swallowed. Therefore, in case of an emergency I will call 999, which would be a quick emergency. As there is a high number of glassware used in this experiment, I will need to be very careful if any glass breaks by any chance as I can get in contact with my body in case it breaks. Therefore, I will be wearing goggles at all times to minimise this risk. During the experiment, I will need to be sure that I wear goggles at all times in order to reduce the risk of any substance from getting in the eye. I will need to make sure that there is no running in the class in case I run into any equipment. Before, I star any of the experiment; I will need to wash my hands properly and after the experiment. ...read more.

Conclusion

of sulphuric acid should be used, which allowed me to know when to expect the end point. Other ways of predicting my end point could also be used. These include, using a potentiometer, which is an instrument that measures the electrode potential of a solution. These are used for titrations based on a redox reaction; the potential of the working electrode will suddenly change as the endpoint is reached. Precision of apparatus used Percentage error (%) = Error x 100 Reading As I used a glass pipette in the experiment, the error of the glass pipette is +/-0.06cm3. Percentage error of glass pipette = (0.06/25) x 100 = +/-0.24%. I also used a burette, which has an error of +/- 0.05cm3. As I took two readings, the error is therefore, going to be double - 0.10cm3. Percentage error of burette = (0.10/25) x 100 = +/-0.40% The volumetric flask, which I used has an error of +/- 0.20cm3. Percentage error of volumetric flask = (0.20/250) x 100 = +/-0.08% The mass balance, which I used also has an error of +/-0.05cm3, however, as I will be taking two readings, my overall error is +/-0.010cm3. Percentage error of mass balance = (0.010/2.65) x 100 = +/-0.32236% Overall, I think that my precision errors are very significant as you can see, that they are not a major factor in my investigation, which meant that they did not affect my results very much. However, if the volumes I used were smaller, then the percentage error would have a significant impact on the results. Therefore, I used large volumes so that the percentage error will not have significant impact on my results. ...read more.

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