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titration - I am to be given a sample of sulphuric acid thought to have a concentration between 0.05 and 0.15 mol dm- and have to find out the accurate concentration of the acid.

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Introduction

Finding out how much acid there is in a solution By Mohammed Babor Quibria Hossain CS 6A5 1.0 PLAN 1.1 Aim I am to be given a sample of sulphuric acid thought to have a concentration between 0.05 and 0.15 mol dm-� and have to find out the accurate concentration of the acid. I am also provided with solid, anhydrous sodium carbonate, a range of indicators and details about the suitability of the indicators for different types of titration. 1.2 List of Apparatus * Burette. * Sulphuric acid (250cm�). * Anhydrous sodium carbonate * 250cm� volumetric flask. * Clamp stand. * 250cm� conical flask. * 25cm� pipette. * Pipette filler. * Weighing boat. * Weighing scale. * Spatula. * Filter funnel. * Wash bottle and distilled water. * Methyl Orange indicator solution. 1.3 Risk Assessment During my investigation there are key hazards that I have to look out for. They are listed in the table below: Chemical Risk Precaution Action in the event of an accident occurring Sulphuric acid Irritant Be careful when handling Wash affected area with water. Methyl Orange indicator solution Highly Flammable Wear lab coat Using a fire extinguisher extinguish any flames. Anhydrous sodium carbonate Powdery Be careful when handling Clean up the mess. 1.4 Method Diagram of investigation * I need to calculate the mass of sodium carbonate I will need in order to make up a standard solution. ...read more.

Middle

o Once the sodium carbonate has dissolved in the volumetric flask I will then fill it up with distilled again but to the graduation mark using a wash bottle. * I will then pipette 25cm� of this sodium carbonate solution into a 250cm� conical flask using a pipette and pipette filler and add 3 drops of the methyl orange indicator solution to the conical flask. * After this I am going to rinse a burette with the sulphuric acid by filling it up and releasing its contents. After rinsing I will fill up the burette with the sulphuric acid and place it on the clamp and record its initial reading. * I will then place the conical flask containing the sodium carbonate solution under the burette and then titrate it until the solution becomes clear. * Once the solution has become clear I will record the burette's final reading and take the initial reading away from it to find the titre. * I will repeat the titration on a new sample of sodium carbonate another to time to ensure that I have reliable results and obtain and average. 1.5 Bibliography Below is the list of any sources I have used for my investigation. 1 OCR Activity Booklet- Chemistry for life - Elements of Life - EL 2.1 2000 2 OCR Activity Booklet, Chemistry of Natural Resources, Atmosphere - A 3.3 2000 Pages 59-279 3 4 5 2.0 ANALYSIS 2.1 Results Table Table showing the volume of ...read more.

Conclusion

3.2 Percentage errors For every trial I carried out there was slight errors. Below is a table showing the percentage errors. Measurement Percentage Error (%) Sodium Carbonate 0.005 / 2.65 x 100 = �0.19 Average volume of sulphuric acid used 0.1 / 37.55 x 100 = �0.27 Total percentage error = �0.46 The total percentage of errors can be found by adding the values in the last column together. The overall percentage of error in my investigation is �41.58%. This is very significant as half the investigation seems flawed. 3.3 Significant Errors In my investigation there were many significant errors within the procedure used and the measurements taken. I have listed the errors below. Procedural Errors * The amount of sulphuric acid placed into the sodium carbonate solution may have had fluctuations as the methyl orange can only be seen once you shake it and the flask was not shaken all the time. * When I was making the sodium carbonate solution all the sodium carbonate may not have dissolved into the distilled water. Measuring Errors * The burette had an error of �0.1cm� which could have shown fluctuations in the amount of sulphuric acid that was used. * The weighing scale had an error of �0.005g which could have had an impact on the amount of sodium carbonate that was used for the experiment. 3.4 Improvements I could have made many significant changes to my investigation to make it more reliable. These include: * Continuously shake the flask containing the sodium carbonate. ?? ?? ?? ?? Page 1 of 13 ...read more.

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