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Titration - Preparation,Neutralisation and Applications in Industry

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Introduction

Preparation of the Standard Sodium Hydroxide solution. P2. Aim: To make an accurate Sodium Hydroxide solution ready for titration. Apparatus: Sodium Hydroxide pellets, Pipette, Distilled water, Volumetric Flask, Spatula, Weighing scale, Goggles. NaOH: 23+16+1=40g. 40g NaOH in 1 litre (1000ml) 10g in 250ml 1g in 250ml 0.1 molar Method: Firstly we weighed out exactly 1 gram of the Sodium Hydroxide pellets ensuring accuracy to its highest to prevent any flaws in our results. We then carefully put the pellets into a volumetric flask. After that we poured approximately 100ml of distilled water into it and shook the solution for approximately a minute till the pellets were fully dissolved. Then we added approximately 150ml of water to make it 250ml we used the meniscus to maintain accuracy by putting the line to 250ml.We ensured our glassware was calibrated correctly to the measurement marks by using reliable manufacturers. Finally our Sodium Hydroxide solution was ready for neutralisation. Sodium Hydroxide Titration Experiment. P2. Aim: To make the Sodium Hydroxide solution turn green (neutral) Apparatus: Boss, Clamp, Retort stand, Burette, Universal indicator, Sodium Hydroxide solution, 1molar HCL, Method: Firstly we set up out Retort stand by attaching the Clamp, Boss and Burette. ...read more.

Middle

Evaluation: Our result was out by 1%. This shows our experiment was carried out correctly and our results are reliable and accurate. Different indicator: The first try of our experiment we used a different indicator (mephyll). Our result was 22.8ml. The colour of this indicator was red unlike the universal indictor which was a dark purple. To improve and make my results accurate, I would carry the experiment out a few times and also clean the funnel each time after being used as it can still contain drops of the indicators after using it each time and by doing this can make the results look more similar and reliable. Our results showed we were very close to the 0.1 molar experiment as we got: 2.5×10-3÷22.8×10-3=0.11molar. This shows that our results were reliable and quite accurate. Research how Titrations are used in industry and the equipment that is needed. D1. Titrations are used in all types of industries. There are many different types of Titrations all with different goals. The most common being the Acid-base Titration which depends on the neutralization between an acid and a base and an indicator being added. ...read more.

Conclusion

When carrying out Titrations in the wine industry, the wine is titrated against Sodium hydroxide, where the pH end point would be in-between 8-10, usually around 8.2/8.3 This is called the phenolphthalein endpoint. This method is similar to the standard acid/base titration but the way the results are expressed is different. The acidity is not expressed in molars but in g/100ml, this is an industrial standard for the wine industry. When producing pharmaceutical products it is important prepare standard solutions and carry out titrations because these are needed to comply with official guidelines which are in place to protect the consumer. If there is a little error with a pharmaceutical product then it can cause serious illness or even death. Companies such as Metrohm one of the world?s leading pharmaceutical company use parameters of various active ingredients or various excipients of products using basic titrations. They also use Karl Fischer Titrations where the parameter is the water content. This is the PharmPAC table from the Metrohm website: http://gyazo.com/35a63edde694304b292ec94cac6c4fdc.png It shows different types of titrations and there uses in the production of pharmaceutical products. When performing titrations the Metrohm Company uses tiamo for its equipment leading control and database software for titrators and dosing devices. One in particular is The Titrando which can sample preparations at the touch of a button. ...read more.

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