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Titration. The aim of this investigation was to find out the accurate concentration of an acid solution, which is thought to have a concentration between 0.05 and 0.15mol dm in concentration.

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Making up a standard solution Introduction A standard solution is one whose concentration is known exactly. Standard solutions can be prepared by weighing a mass of solid, and dissolving it with known volume of solution in a standard flask. Standard solutions can be chemically reacted with a solution of unknown concentration in order to determine the concentration of the unknown. This process of adding one solution to another solution until the reaction is just complete is known as a titration. Titration is a method of quantitative analysis, and is based on measuring volumes; it is sometimes called volumetric analysis. Aim The aim of this investigation was to find out the accurate concentration of an acid solution, which is thought to have a concentration between 0.05 and 0.15mol dm in concentration. To do this a titration was carried out between a week alkali and strong acid and the use of methyl orange indicator to show the end point of a titration. This is a suitable indicator for a titration between a strong acid and weak alkali. Na2CO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) = Na2SO4(aq) + H20(l) + CO2(g) Apparatus * Sulphuric acid of unknown concentration * 2.65g of anhydrous sodium carbonate * Methyl orange indicator * Analytical balance * Volumetric flask * Burette and stand * Conical flask * 250cm 3 beaker * Graduated pipette (25cm3) ...read more.


The burette was filled using a funnel with the prepared solution so the meniscus was above the zero mark. Accurate reading was taken by placing a white piece of paper behind the scale. The waste beaker was placed underneath the burette and the tap was opened until the solution filled the jet, it was made sure no air bubbles were present. The solution was then allowed slowly to run until the bottom of the line of the meniscus was on the zero mark. A 25cm3 pipette was taken and rinsed with distilled water. A few cm3 of the prepared solution was drawn up using a pipette filler. The filler was then removed and tipped and rotated to wash the inside surface with the solution. The filler was replaced and the solution was drawn into the pipette until the meniscus was 2cm above the graduation mark. Then carefully, the liquid level was allowed to fall until the bottom of the meniscus was just on the line. The liquid was poured down into a clean conical flask. When the movement of the meniscus stopped, there was a small amount of solution left in the tip of the pipette. Therefore, the tip was dipped below the surface of the liquid in the flask for 3 seconds Performing a rough titration In order to perform a rough titration a note of the burette reading was recorded to the nearest 0.05cm3. ...read more.


If inhaled, get fresh air. If breathing becomes difficult give oxygen and seek medical attention. In case of skin contact, wash affected area with plenty if water. Seek medical advice. Safety handling and personal precautions: Container should be kept closed and should be labeled. If spilt it should be swept, placed in a bag and disposed. Ventilate the area and wash the spill site after material pickup is complete Methyl Orange: Health Hazard Information: If it is inhaled it can cause respiratory problems. Ingestion may cause irritation to the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms such as coughing, sore throat and chest pains may occur. In contact with the skin, it can cause mild irritation and redness and mild irritation may be caused if the solution comes into contact with the eyes First Aid Procedures: If inhaled, fresh air should be received. If breathing becomes difficult medical attention should be given immediately. In the case of skin contact, it should be washed with plenty of water and medical attention should be received if irritation continues. In the event of the solution coming into contact with the eyes, the upper and lower eyelids should be lifted and the eye should be washed with water. Safety handling and personal precautions: Liquid should be kept in a closed container and stored in a cool, dry place. Protective equipment should be worn including safety goggles, gloves and laboratory coat. ...read more.

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