• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To investigate the factors that affect the time taken for the digestion of casein in milk by trypsin, and to see what factors will make the reaction go faster or slower.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

AIM: To investigate the factors that affect the time taken for the digestion of casein in milk by trypsin, and to see what factors will make the reaction go faster or slower. BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts and are found in cells. They speed up the chemical reactions in living things. Our guts would take weeks and weeks to digest our food without enzymes, our muscles, nerves and bones would not work properly and so on - we would not be living without them. TABLE OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES: SECRETIONS ACTION Salivary Glands Amylase Starch --> Maltose Stomach Pepsin Proteins --> Polypeptides HCR Kills bacteria Pancreas Amylase Starch --> Maltose Trypsin Polypeptides --> Amino acids Lipase Fats --> Fatty acids + Glycerol Liver Bile Emulsifies fats Ileum Maltase Maltose --> Glucose Sucrase Sucrose --> Glucose + Fructose A catalyst is any chemical substance that makes a chemical reaction go faster, without being changed itself. A catalyst can be used over and over again in a chemical reaction: it does not get used up. Enzymes are very much the same except that they are easily denatured (It loses it shape and will not work any more). ...read more.

Middle

* Make sure that the end point is fairly determined - As soon as the dot can be seen at least a little bit, the experiment should be stopped. * Make sure the same person does the shaking of the test tube and he shakes it with the same strength in each experiment. * Make sure that only distilled water is used, because tap water may contain impurities, which can affect the results. Safety: * Be careful to not splash any of the solutions as it can be very irritable if the trypsin gets into somebody's eyes * Other than that, follow the basic simple classroom rules PREDICTIONS After carrying out my preliminary studies and also after studying some textbooks, I have been able to make a prediction: As the concentration of the trypsin is doubled, the rate of digestion of the casein in the milk will also double. Therefore, the rate of the digestion of the casein in the milk is proportional to the concentration of the trypsin. This is what I expect the graph showing rate of digestion, against the concentration of the trypsin solution to look like: 0 Conc. ...read more.

Conclusion

This way, the temperature would have stayed relatively the same. Or even better, a water bath could have been used. This would mean that the temperature would stay the same throughout the experiment. To make sure that the measurements of the solutions were, correct, a burette could have been used, which is very precise and would have made the results more accurate. Also, to decide when the experiment was over a light detector could have maybe been used; a would have been shone through one side of the test tube, and when the milk has been digested and it turns translucent, the light detector would indicate this, and my results would have been more accurate. Also, it may have also been a good idea to use some type of stirring device so that the results would have been a bit fairer. The experiment could have been extended by varying the temperature in which the reaction took place. Or I could have also varied the concentration of the milk, and also the pH of the solution. This would have helped me get a more overall understanding of how the enzyme, trypsin works. Even though the results are slightly 'off', I still think I can come to a firm conclusion with them. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Find out if enzymes work faster or slower at different temperatures.

    5 star(s)

    Here is an electron micrograph of a phagocyte surrounded by lymphocytes. It is a good representation of enzymes at work. The way in which enzymes work cannot be tested conclusively but there are many theories. The most widely accepted theory is the "Lock and Key Theory".

  2. Marked by a teacher

    How does the concentration of enzymes affect the breakdown of starch by a-amylase in ...

    4 star(s)

    Looking at the distance by which the clearance rings have increased in size: Concentration difference (%) Distance by which clearance rings have increased (mm) 2 to 4 1.7 4 to 6 1.6 6 to 8 1.1 8 to 10 2.5 The reason why I have not included the jump from

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Enzyme concentrations using trypsin enzume and casein solution

    This is so an average can be taken and the results are more reliable. This way the data is not displaced by any anomalous results. The apparatus and experimental procedure must be selected and used in a way that will ensure that the results are valid - results are valid

  2. Investigate the effect of enzyme temperature on the activity of the enzyme Trypsin on ...

    I think my anomalous result is due to the amount of stirring I did for these two temperatures. I may have stirred the 50oC test tubes more then the 40oC. The stirring regime is a major inaccuracy in the procedure and it is the most likely explanation for my anomalous results.

  1. An Investigation Into The Digestion Of Milk By Trypsin.

    Increasing temperature thus increases the metabolic rate only within a limited range. If the temperature becomes too high, enzyme denaturising destroys life. Low temperatures also change the shapes of enzymes. With enzymes that are cold sensitive, the change causes loss of activity.

  2. An experiment to investigate the effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of milk ...

    at once. ==> How fat content of milk will be kept constant: To ensure that the fat concentration of milk is kept constant, we will use milk from the same sample. Homogenised milk also must be used. This is milk where the fat is equally distributed throughout.

  1. An investigation into the effect of lipase concentration on the rate of lipid digestion ...

    As test tubes 3 and 4 were confirmed to not be affected by lipid digestion, only tubes 1 and 2 will be used as the basis for the investigation into the affect of concentration on the rate of lipid digestion in milk, in the presence and absence of bile salts.

  2. A2 coursework- The effects of bile salts on digestion of fat

    An enzyme has an active site to which a substrate is complimentary to and so must fit into perfectly, temporary bonds occur between the substrate and some of the R groups of an enzyme and this is called an enzyme-substrate complex.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work