• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To investigate the factors that affect the time taken for the digestion of casein in milk by trypsin, and to see what factors will make the reaction go faster or slower.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

AIM: To investigate the factors that affect the time taken for the digestion of casein in milk by trypsin, and to see what factors will make the reaction go faster or slower. BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts and are found in cells. They speed up the chemical reactions in living things. Our guts would take weeks and weeks to digest our food without enzymes, our muscles, nerves and bones would not work properly and so on - we would not be living without them. TABLE OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES: SECRETIONS ACTION Salivary Glands Amylase Starch --> Maltose Stomach Pepsin Proteins --> Polypeptides HCR Kills bacteria Pancreas Amylase Starch --> Maltose Trypsin Polypeptides --> Amino acids Lipase Fats --> Fatty acids + Glycerol Liver Bile Emulsifies fats Ileum Maltase Maltose --> Glucose Sucrase Sucrose --> Glucose + Fructose A catalyst is any chemical substance that makes a chemical reaction go faster, without being changed itself. A catalyst can be used over and over again in a chemical reaction: it does not get used up. Enzymes are very much the same except that they are easily denatured (It loses it shape and will not work any more). ...read more.

Middle

* Make sure that the end point is fairly determined - As soon as the dot can be seen at least a little bit, the experiment should be stopped. * Make sure the same person does the shaking of the test tube and he shakes it with the same strength in each experiment. * Make sure that only distilled water is used, because tap water may contain impurities, which can affect the results. Safety: * Be careful to not splash any of the solutions as it can be very irritable if the trypsin gets into somebody's eyes * Other than that, follow the basic simple classroom rules PREDICTIONS After carrying out my preliminary studies and also after studying some textbooks, I have been able to make a prediction: As the concentration of the trypsin is doubled, the rate of digestion of the casein in the milk will also double. Therefore, the rate of the digestion of the casein in the milk is proportional to the concentration of the trypsin. This is what I expect the graph showing rate of digestion, against the concentration of the trypsin solution to look like: 0 Conc. ...read more.

Conclusion

This way, the temperature would have stayed relatively the same. Or even better, a water bath could have been used. This would mean that the temperature would stay the same throughout the experiment. To make sure that the measurements of the solutions were, correct, a burette could have been used, which is very precise and would have made the results more accurate. Also, to decide when the experiment was over a light detector could have maybe been used; a would have been shone through one side of the test tube, and when the milk has been digested and it turns translucent, the light detector would indicate this, and my results would have been more accurate. Also, it may have also been a good idea to use some type of stirring device so that the results would have been a bit fairer. The experiment could have been extended by varying the temperature in which the reaction took place. Or I could have also varied the concentration of the milk, and also the pH of the solution. This would have helped me get a more overall understanding of how the enzyme, trypsin works. Even though the results are slightly 'off', I still think I can come to a firm conclusion with them. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Enzyme concentrations using trypsin enzume and casein solution

    This is so an average can be taken and the results are more reliable. This way the data is not displaced by any anomalous results. The apparatus and experimental procedure must be selected and used in a way that will ensure that the results are valid - results are valid

  2. An investigation into the effect of lipase concentration on the rate of lipid digestion ...

    As test tubes 3 and 4 were confirmed to not be affected by lipid digestion, only tubes 1 and 2 will be used as the basis for the investigation into the affect of concentration on the rate of lipid digestion in milk, in the presence and absence of bile salts.

  1. How the concentration of amylase effects the digestion of the starch.

    Another technique that I used to reassure that my measurements were accurate was that I found that in a contained area a liquid forms a meniscus (a curve) at the surface due to the surface tension. Therefore to gain accurate readings I read off from the bottom of the curve.

  2. A2 coursework- The effects of bile salts on digestion of fat

    Spillages on the floor should be mopped up. Bile salt if ingested can make you sick and is so medical advice should be seeked immediately. Once again any spillages should be cleaned up to prevent slips happening. Water should be mopped up when spilt but also there will be electrical socket nearby to the water bath and so

  1. An Investigation Into The Digestion Of Milk By Trypsin.

    Increasing temperature thus increases the metabolic rate only within a limited range. If the temperature becomes too high, enzyme denaturising destroys life. Low temperatures also change the shapes of enzymes. With enzymes that are cold sensitive, the change causes loss of activity.

  2. Investigate How Temperature Affects the Reaction between Milk and Trypsin.

    Averages (s) (0dp) Rate (S-1) (4dp) 30 40 50 60 70 80 Obtaining Evidence I made my results as accurate as I could. I did this by using a 5ml measuring syringe to measure the amount of milk and trypsin, as this has a mark every 0.5ml on it so I can measure the amount accurately.

  1. The main aim of this experiment is to investigate how varying the concentration of ...

    * Substrate concentration. This will involve using the 4% milk provided, and possibly diluting it with distilled water to produce varying sets of concentrations. * Enzyme concentration. This will involve using the 1% trypsin provided. Again, I could possibly dilute the 1% trypsin to various concentrations/ molarities.

  2. An Experiment to investigate the factors that affect the Power Output of a solar ...

    I think that the yellow filter will have a power output moderately between the power output with the red filter and the green filter, as it is a relatively light colour compared to the other two colours, and most of the light coming from the light bulb will not be

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work