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# To investigate the relationship between u and v for a convex lens.

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Introduction

To investigate the relationship between u and v for a convex lens. Prediction I predict that the values of u two times greater than the focal length of the lens, the image will be diminished and the value for v will be greater than the focal length of the lens but not greater than two times the focal length of the lens. The bigger u the smaller the image and closer to the focal length v is. A simple ray diagram can prove this: I also predict that the values of v less than two times the focal length but greater than the focal length the image will be magnified and the value for v will be greater than twice the focal length. The closer to the focal length v is the more magnified the image and the bigger the value of v. This can be proved by this diagram: I also predict that for the values of u less than f a virtual image will be produced as this does not connect u and v there is no point using values of u less than the focal length. Ideal Results My Ideal results are on a separate page and were calculated using the formula 1/u+1/v=1/f u= the distance of ...read more.

Middle

This is because the image for the smaller values is much larger and the value of v has a greater gap between each step than the higher values of u. Diagram Apparatus * 12 volt lamp- to produce the light must be right next to the object so the maximum light gets through * Object- a cross hair shape so it is easily identified and a clear image can be obtained each time * Convex lens * White Screen- so image can be clearly seen and observed * Metre rule- to measure u and v Method First collect apparatus noted above. Set up apparatus as shown in the diagram making sure the object and the 12-volt lamp are very close together so the maximum light gets through. The lamp must have gone through a 12-volt power supply. For each value of u make sure the object is u centimetres from the centre of the lens using a metre rule to the nearest millimetre. Once this has been done use a vertical plain white screen to focus the image on. If there is a range of distance where there is an image keep moving the screen until the clearest possible image is present on the screen. ...read more.

Conclusion

This could mean that the full amount of light is not going through the object therefore changing the distance of v. This problem can be solved by focusing the light so that it only goes through the object therefore increasing the light intensity. A second problem with the experiment is that the object is made of glass and this diverges the rays slightly so when the light reaches the lens not all the light then gets focused therefore changing the length of v. The way of remedying this problem would be to make the object out of a transparent material that would not bend the light. Or focus the light towards the centre of the object so the amount of light that is diverged is cut down. Further tests that could be done are the differences in different types of objects using different materials. Also seeing if the dimming the lights has on the experiment to see if the light intensity makes any difference to the results. The evidence of my results is not quite accurate enough to support my conclusion in full. However this not due to the experiment this is more down to human error. Also interpretation of where the image is at its clearest varies from person to person therefore making my results slightly inaccurate. ...read more.

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