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To plan an investigation into the effect of substrate concentration on the activity of the enzyme catalase.

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Introduction

Planning Exercise Aim: To plan an investigation into the effect of substrate concentration on the activity of the enzyme catalase. The enzyme is found in the living tissues of most living things and catalyses the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. 2H O 2 H O + O hydrogen peroxide water oxygen Hydrogen peroxide is a toxic product of several different metabolic reactions. Apparatus Yeast suspension of appropriate density ( 5g dried yeast in 100cm� distilled water) - this is to provide us with the catalase enzyme, living yeast is a rich source of it. Throughout the experiment this shall be kept the constant volume of 10ml 10 volume (1.0 mol dm��) hydrogen peroxide solution - this is the substrate. The concentration of it shall differ each experiment. Constantly at a total volume of 10ml, the hydrogen peroxide shall be tested at 1 ml, 2 ml, 3 ml up to 10ml, with the distilled water making up the rest of the volume to make the full 10ml. Distilled water - (boiled water) - used to dilute the substrate, altering the concentration Graduated Biuret - To measure the volume of oxygen collected Water Tank - ...read more.

Middle

Volume of distilled water (ml) Volume of oxygen produced (cm�) Time taken for oxygen to be produced (s) 10 0 9 1 8 2 7 3 6 4 5 5 4 6 3 7 2 8 1 9 To make the experiment a fair test, the following procedures should be conducted: * The same person must measure the different measurements of substrate and yeast solution each time * The measurements must also come from the originally provided hydrogen peroxide solution and yeast solution * The same person must pour the substrate and yeast solution together into the conical flask each time * The same person must time the experiment * The same person must judge when the experiment is over * The same person must judge the volume of oxygen * The same person to put the cork back onto the conical flask Prediction I predict that the more hydrogen peroxide used in the concentration, the slower the reaction, but the more oxygen produced. The reason for my prediction is because with more hydrogen peroxide present, there is more for the enzyme to catalyse, and therefore an increased amount of time will be taken. ...read more.

Conclusion

The explanation for this is that when the enzyme and substrate are first mixed, there is a large number of substrate molecules. At any moment, virtually every enzyme molecule has a substrate molecule in its active site. The rate at which the reaction occurs will depend on the amount the enzyme has to catalyse, and on how many enzyme molecules there are, and the speed at which the enzyme can convert the substrate into product, release it, and then bind with another substrate molecule. As more and more substrate is converted into product, there are fewer and fewer substrate molecules to bind with enzymes. This means the reaction gets slower as the enzymes are left "waiting" for a substrate molecule to hit their active site. Once they are all converted, the reaction stops. Other ways of extending the experiment could be to introduce heating of the catalase, possibly promoting faster reaction still, or trying even more varied concentrations. Data obtained would be presented onto two graphs, (as drawn below). One graph would show concentration against time, and the other would show concentration against total volume of oxygen collected. By putting them into the graphs, it makes the results easy to analyse and draw accurate conclusions from. ...read more.

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